Johann II, Prince of Liechtenstein
During his exceptionally long reign - he took over the government, as in Prussia, Frederick William IV reigned, and was still ruler, as there Otto Braun served as Prime Minister - a constitution was both in 1862 brought into force and in 1921 the Constitution on parliamentary - democratic basis.
The Prince promoted art and science in his country and initiated a first modernization of large rural state.
Prince Johann Maria Franz Placidus was born after five older sisters, the son of Prince Alois Josef II (1796-1858) and his wife Countess Franziska Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau ( 1813-1881 ). In Franz, he later received a thirteen years younger brother. Johann Maria gained early knowledge of the English, French, Italian and Czech language. In his childhood, his unstable health often gave cause for concern.
Prince Johann II remained unmarried all his life.
His siblings were:
- Marie (1834-1909); ∞ 1860 with Count Ferdinand von and Trautmansdorff, ROGV († 1896)
- Karoline (1836-1885); ∞ 1855 Prince Alexander von Schoenburg - Hartenstein, ROGV († 1896)
- Sophie (1837-1899); ∞ 1863 with Prince Karl of Löwenstein -Wertheim -Rosenberg, ROGV († 1921)
- Aloysia (1838-1920); ∞ 1864, Count Henry of Pécs († 1885)
- Ida (1839-1921); ∞ 1857 Prince Adolph Joseph zu Schwarzenberg, ROGV († 1914)
- Franziska (1841-1858)
- Henriette (1843-1931); ∞ 1865 Prince Alfred of Liechtenstein, ROGV († 1907)
- Anna (1846-1924); ∞ 1864 Prince Georg Christian von Lobkowitz († 1908)
- Therese (1850-1938); ∞ 1882 Prince Arnulf of Bavaria, ROGV († 1907)
- Franz de Paula Maria Karl August, ROGV (1853-1938); ∞ 1929 Elsa von Gutmann († 1947), from 1929 Prince Franz I
After extensive training by selected tutor and a visit to the University of Bonn and technical lectures in Karlsruhe, he took over before completing his studies at eighteen the position as Heir and sovereign prince of Liechtenstein, but rendered 1859-1860 the regency of his mother Franziska. He traveled extensively through Europe, has expanded the Liechtenstein art collections, promoted botany, archeology and geography. In 1859, he also visited his country Liechtenstein, ordered a general compulsory education up to the age of 14 and signed on 26 September 1862, the first Constitution of the Principality. When Princes of Frankfurt on 16 August 1863, he was present as a representative of his country, although he was considered almost pathologically shy. In 1866, he mobilized the last time the Liechtenstein military and triggered the quota on February 12, 1868. For his 50th reign anniversary he had to spend the anniversary commemorative medal.
Prince Johann II led to his 71- year reign, the modernization of the agrarian -oriented Principality one: From 1869 Liechtenstein was connected with the Morse telegraph, the then most modern and most rapid means of communication to the world. 1898 followed by the phone, 1887 Liechtenstein was a rail connection. From 1905 to 1912 he was the previously leased and run-down castle Vaduz renovate comprehensive and restore.
In the Great War of 1914, the prince held in the Principality of neutrality. In 1918, he witnessed how the Austro-Hungarian monarchy was setting and parts of the North Moravian family property were incorporated into the new state Czechoslovak Republic. In 1919 he announced the Customs Treaty of 1852 with Austria. For his 81st birthday on October 5, 1921 Prince Johann II issued a new constitution for the Principality, which is valid since then. After a mail contract in 1920 with the Swiss Confederation, he was awarded this in 1923 also from the customs union. Since 1924, the Swiss currency instead of the Austrian the official currency in the Principality. Since 1922 combine postal routes ( bus lines) Liechtenstein landscapes.
Increasingly viewed critically, however, was his almost constant absence from the Principality: The prince came in sixty years ' five times into the country / what may we hope from princely hand? it was said in an anonymous work.
Title, Title and Coat of Arms
The full title of Prince was Prince of Liechtenstein, Duke of Opava and hunters village, " Count of Rietberg, Sovereign of the House of Liechtenstein.
All members of the House have since imperial ceremony of the predicate of 3 June 1760 Title Highness ( writing: SD ) and perform the coat of arms of the Princely Family.
John II had since 1862, the 987th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece, Austrian ceremony.
Prince Johann II was in the new tomb of the Liechtenstein family vault in Wranau, north of Brno, buried.
The grateful people of the principality built on the built with the help of his parish church of Schaan a monument that summarizes how the people saw him:
Prince Franz Joseph I. (1726-1781) ∞ 1750 Countess Leopoldine of Sternberg (1733-1809)
Landgraf Joachim Egon of Fürstenberg - Weitra (1749-1828) ∞ Countess Sophia Theresia of Oettingen -Wallerstein (1751-1835)
Prince Ernst Joseph Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau (1751-1798) ∞ 1777 Countess Maria Rosália of Harrach (1758-1814)
Count Rudolf of Wrbna and Freudenthal (1761-1823) ∞ 1785 Countess Maria Theresia of Kaunitz - Rietberg - Questenberg (1763-1803)
Prince Johann I Joseph (1760-1836) ∞ 1792 Countess Josepha of Fürstenberg - Weitra (1776-1848)
Count Franz de Paula Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau (1784-1823) ∞ Countess Therese of Wrbna and Freudenthal (1789-1874)
Prince Alois II (1796-1858) ∞ 1831 Countess Franziska Kinsky of Wchinitz and Tettau (1813-1881)
Prince Johann II (1840-1929)