Johann Julius Hecker

The Protestant theologian Johann Julius Hecker ( born November 2, 1707 Become an der Ruhr (now on food); † June 24, 1768 in Berlin ) is considered the founder of the practice-oriented secondary school and was the founder of the first Prussian teachers' college in 1748 The. 1763 adopted General Land school regulations were mainly developed by Hecker.


Hecker grew up in a family of teachers in the Lower Rhine. The Essen headmaster Johann Heinrich Zopf promoted at the Essen city school Hecker's interest in studying theology and inspired him early for the ideas of the Halle pietism. This reform-minded direction within Protestantism, whose main representative August Hermann Francke was his life's work of the Francke Foundations, looked different from the Lutheran orthodoxy for new schools and educational pedagogies.

During his studies of theology, ancient languages ​​, medicine and natural sciences at the University of Halle Hecker was coined by Francke himself and of theologians such as Joachim Justus Breithaupt, father Abraham and Joachim Lange. In 1729 he was hired at Pädagogium in Hall as a teacher and in 1733 he published textbooks on botany and anatomy.

1735, he was appointed a preacher, teacher and inspector of military orphanage in Potsdam and was appointed in 1738 for the first preacher at Berlin's Trinity Church by the pietistic embossed King Frederick William I, who was very fond of Hecker's ideas and supported him in his reform efforts. The call came after the king had witnessed a sermon Hecker, the so took him by Hecker, that he gave him along the way:

Now he is supposed to be the newly built Holy Trinity Church in Berlin preacher, he must, as he has done here today, preaching to people at the Friedrichstadt the Lord Jesus and accept the youth right, because it the most is situated.

With wider financial support Johann Julius Hecker was 1746 buy the abandoned buildings of the Frederick Municipal Gymnasium in Berlin and founded in 1747 with the Economic- mathematical Realschule a new type of school. 1750 he was appointed Oberkonsistorialrat. On the distribution and promotion of primarily educational writings and ideas in the following years he founded a publishing house and a weekly magazine.

The progressive teaching approach Hecker to connect in real school for the first time with a school oriented to the future professional practice training, had great influence on the educational development in Prussia. In addition, Hecker realized that it needed for this new type of school specially trained teachers. Already in 1748 he founded a teacher training college, from 1753 emerged the Kurmärkische country school teacher seminar and since 1753 based at Castle Köpenick, then still in Berlin, had. In the same year he founded in junior high school was affiliated with a parish clerk and schoolmaster seminar.

For his junior high school student Hecker organized, among other placements in craft shops and factories. He also had to create a school garden, which, in his memory inspired the Hecker 's Real -student, the writer and publisher Friedrich Nicolai decades later. The economic newspaper Leipziger collections reported in 1750, we have made very special institution for lively lessons in plantation stuff. Because you have acquiriret part of a field against long lease, and lets the youth in Recreationsstunden in fact show themselves what bey the application of hedges, the sowing, planting, grafting, etc. Oculieren and particularly the maintenance and planting of mulberry trees for to take heed of silk. The silk culture was the Great promoted at this time of Frederick with the aim to satisfy the growing demand for silk as independent as possible from the import.

The General Land School Regulations of 12 August 1763, when the Johann Julius Hecker had prepared on the basis of Minden- Ravensburg Berger School Regulations of 1748 significantly and which was adopted five years before his death, formed the basis for the development of the Prussian elementary school system.

According to Hecker's death in 1768, his junior high school was taken over by the Royal Friedrich- Wilhelm-Gymnasium.

There is the beginning of the third millennium in a Berlin-Marzahn/Hellersdorf named after Hecker junior high school, the Johann Julius Hecker High School.

Johann Julius Hecker in 1898, honored in the park of Schloss Köpenick, the seat of the first Prussian teachers' college with a commemorative stele, which stands in the castle grounds today. There are also in Essen-Werden, Hecker's birth, a theologian named after the primary school, the school Hecker, and also the Julius Hecker Square.