Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
Johann Wilhelm Joseph Janaz of the Palatinate ( also known as " Jan Wellem " * April 19, 1658 in Dusseldorf, † June 8, 1716 ibid ) was born the younger Neuburg line of the Wittelsbach. He was since 1679 when Johann Wilhelm II, Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1690 and also Erzschatzmeister the Holy Roman Empire, Count Palatine, Elector Palatine Count Palatine and Duke of Palatinate -Neuburg.
Due to the War of Spanish Succession, he acquired temporarily back the possession of the former Electoral Palatinate territories (Oberpfalz and County Cham 1707-1714 ) and was the office of the empire Erztruchsessen exercise.
His parents were Prince Elector Philipp Wilhelm of the Palatinate and Elisabeth Amalia of Hesse -Darmstadt. The education of the electoral prince took over Jesuit.
On September 2, 1690 he succeeded his father as Elector, after the latter had been a decade earlier given him the regency over the jülich - Berg countries complex. Because of the Palatinate War of Succession Johann Wilhelm did not reside in the ruins of Heidelberg, but in the Düsseldorf castle (then the residence of the duchies of Jülich- Berg).
In order to satisfy his great financial needs, he pledged the Office Boxberg for 300,000 florins to the Bishopric of Würzburg.
In the Peace of Rijswijk (1697 ), which ended the Palatinate War of Succession, he reached the return of occupied by the French in the Palatinate areas by the admission that the French measures to recatholicization in the Palatinate were not reversed ( " Rijswijk clause " ), which which is also deeply Catholic Jan Wellem was not difficult. The main reason why he was less popular than in the Duchy of Jülich -Berg, where he splendid buildings (eg Schloss Bensberg ), the expansion of the Düsseldorf castle and an elaborate court life many artists and craftsmen gave orders in the Palatinate and in the Protestant. Schwetzingen Castle was the summer residence. His achievements include above all the promotion of art and culture. In the residence city of Dusseldorf, he founded the Dusseldorf art gallery with works mainly by Rubens, which today forms one of the core holdings of the Alte Pinakothek in Munich. Of Jan Wellem court painter was Jan Frans van Douven. He suggested the establishment of the " Banco di gyro d' affrancatione " on March 2, 1705 Jülich- Bergische State Bank, based in at " heylig Roman Empire freyer instead Cöllen " ( Cologne). On September 29, 1708 renewed the Order of St. Hubert.
In Düsseldorf's Old Town, the house " En de Canon " is obtained in which Jan Wellern regularly carousing with its citizens.
The tomb of the deceased on June 8, 1716 Johann Wilhelm is located in the mausoleum of the former Court and the Jesuit Church of St. Andrew, today's Dominican Church of St. Andrew, in Dusseldorf.
Marriage and descendants
Elector Johann Wilhelm married on October 25, 1678 in Wiener Neustadt, the Archduchess Maria Anna Josepha ( 1654-1689 ), daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III. and his wife Princess Eleonora Magdalena Gonzaga of Mantua - Nevers. The marriage had two sons, but both died on the day of birth:
- Nameless son (* / † February 6, 1683 in Dusseldorf ), Elector of the Palatinate
- Nameless son (* / † February 5, 1686 in Vienna), Elector of the Palatinate
His second wife he married on April 29, 1691 by proxy in Florence the Princess Anna Maria Luisa de ' Medici ( 1667-1743 ), daughter of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Cosimo III. de ' Medici and his wife Marguerite Louise d' Orléans. The marriage with the Tuscan Princess, whom he received in Ulm on the Danube on June 5, 1691, remained childless.
- Order of St. Hubert ( Grand Master )
- Order of the Golden Fleece ( Ritter)
Commemoration and subsequent reference to Johann Wilhelm
At the Düsseldorf Market Place is a 1711 created by Gabriel de Grupello equestrian statue. According to legend, the equestrian statue of Jan Wellem said to have been founded before the town hall and by the citizens. After the artist, the material would be deemed to be allegedly knocked Chop Boy on the doors of Düsseldorf citizens and collected donations in the form of silver cutlery. The young Heinrich Heine mused According to a later letter, how many apple tart it well with all the silver spoons could eat. The monument can be seen on a 1964 designed by Heinz Schillinger stamp series capitals of the States of the Federal Republic of Germany.
1914 Jan- Wellern monument by the sculptor Edward Schmitz in Cologne -Mülheim was unveiled. It was originally located at the Viennese court and, after the end of World War II, moved to its present location at the crossroads Jan- Wellern Street / Fürstenbergerstraße in Mülheim City Garden.
On May 6, 1955 Jan- Wellern - square was named in Düsseldorf city center by Jan Wellem.
A liquor company from Haan produced in miniature bottles " Jan Wellem - The Electoral Korn ".
As part of the International DAMC 05 Oldtimer Festival at the Nürburgring Jan- Wellern Cup is extended annually.
Stamp of the German Post Office (1964 )
Jan- Wellern monument in Cologne -Mülheim, 2008