Johannes Agricola (Latin Agricola Bauer, April 20, 1494 in Eisleben, † September 22, 1566 in Berlin) was a German reformer and a close confidant of Martin Luther. (Some sources give 1490 or 1492 as the year of birth. )
Common variants of the name are Johann Schneider ( or reapers, Sneider, Schneyder ), John Eisleben or master Islebius (in his hometown ) or Hans Bauer ( retranslation of latinisierenden Johannes Agricola ).
Johann was born the son of a master tailor Albrecht reapers in Eisleben 1494. He first visited the Martineum Brunswick and moved in 1506 to a school in Leipzig. In the winter semester 1509 he enrolled at the University of Leipzig to begin studying at the faculty of arts.
After finishing his studies with the acquisition of the first academic degree, the baccalauréat, he became a teacher in Brunswick. In the spring of 1516, he enrolled again, this time to the burgeoning University of Wittenberg, where he was an avid student of Martin Luther. First, he allowed himself to enter on the faculty of arts, where he received an academic master's degree was awarded beginning in 1518. He also learned Philipp Melanchthon, with whom he acquired the Baccalaurat theology on October 13, 1519.
Work in the Reformation
With the acquisition of academic degrees, he lectured at the Faculty of Theology, was chairman at the Pedagogic University and worked as a preacher. Already in 1518 he published Luther's version of the Lord 's Prayer -. Agricola experienced during his studies, the publication of 95 theses and the Leipzig disputation as Luther's secretary.
He was also present when Luther on December 10, 1520 before the Elster, the bull threatening excommunication Exsurge burned Domine of Pope Leo X.. Finally, he helped to procure the Canonic rights that were also destroyed in the fire. During the absence of Luther at the Wartburg Agricola began in 1521 to study medicine, but turned after two years - to use his wife and Justus Jonas the Elder - again of theology. He published in 1525 a commentary on the Gospel of Luke and put the notice published in the Faculty of Arts in 1520 Melanchthon dialectic.
Since Agricola could not find a decent teacher in Wittenberg, he became in 1525 pastor at St. Nicolai Church and head of the newly formed Latin School St. Andrew in the house of the old superintendent in Eisleben. In Eisleben he developed the first school rules and wrote in 1526 a Latin and in 1527 a German catechism. In addition, he emerged as a translator, interpreter of Scripture and especially as a collector of German proverbs.
Agricola was estimated as a capable preacher. So he accompanied the Elector John the Steadfast of Saxony as Electoral Saxon court preacher to the Reichstag in Speyer in 1526 and 1529 and in Augsburg in 1530. Moreover, he also worked at the Augsburg confession of the Augsburg Confession, in which the fundamental doctrines of the Protestant Church were formulated.
As 1527 began the first church visitations of the Saxon Kurkreise, it was the first conflict with Luther and Melanchthon. Melanchthon had noted in an internal working paper, the impenitent would be to drive, citing the threat of divine law to repentance. This came in Agricola's hands, which intervened, however, and was reminded only by Luther to rest, stood behind Melanchthon, so as not to interfere with the work on the church visitations, which Luther himself had suggested.
1536 Agricola was because of tensions with the country gentlemen, Count Albrecht VII of Mansfeld, his office in Eisleben on. He moved with his family to Wittenberg and took first in the house of Luther's recording. At Wittenberg Luther Agricola is now represented in his church services and lectures. When Luther returned from a meeting of the Smalcald League in 1537, began its own way of Agricola, from the initially distanced Johannes Bugenhagen. In further disputations of the dispute with Luther was again, then out again conciliatory controversial. Finally, the electoral court intervened and limited Agricola's stay at Wittenberg. Since Agricola realized that he could only lose in continuation of the dispute and threatened the existence of his family, he left in mid-August secretly Wittenberg and was recruited by the Elector Joachim II of Brandenburg.
On its newly established cathedral and palace church, he served as court preacher, General Superintendent and Visitor with the establishment of the Protestant Church in Brandenburg. Despite a printed revocation in 1541 the personal reconciliation remained with Luther. 1541 took Agricola at the Reichstag in Regensburg in part. 1548 he worked in Augsburg next to Julius von Pflug, bishop of Naumburg - Zeitz, and Michael Helding, Titular Bishop of Sidon, in a appointed by the Emperor Charles V. Commission, which drew up a compromise for the provisional order of religion relations. That has been omitted in this compromise on fundamental Protestant demands, was made to him by other reformers criticized for and earned him a loud derision of the Protestants. In most of the ensuing theological disputes of Lutheranism with intricate, Agricola was able to eliminate the influence of Philip the slopes in favor of Mark Gnesio-Lutherans final few years before his death.
Agricola made to a collection of 300 German proverbs, which appeared in 1529. This first collection was followed by a second part with 450 proverbs. Both parts united Agricola 1534 a work entitled Sybenhundert and Funfftzig Teutscher proverbs, verneuwert and improved.
He died in 1566 during a plague epidemic in Berlin.
Agricola married in 1520 in Wittenberg Else Moshauer. 1536 were 9 children born, of which the names of the sons Hans Albrecht ( * 1528), Philip and John Agricola of Eisleben junior are known.
- Agricola, Johannes: Drehundert gemener Sprickwörde, the wy Düdschen us gebruken, unde not beting worher se came. Magdeburg 1528th
- Agricola, Johannes: The other teyl gemainer Tewtscher proverbs, with jhrer außlegung has fünffthalb hundred newer Wörtter. Nuremberg in 1530.
- I call to you, Lord Jesus Christ. (EC 343) Volume 1, 1686
- Volume 2, 1686
- Volume 3, 1686