John III of Portugal
Johann III. (Portuguese Dom João III ), called " the Pious " (O Piedoso or O Pio ) (* June 6, 1502 in Lisbon, † June 11, 1557 ibid ) was the fifteenth King of Portugal. He came from the house of Avis and reigned from 1521 to 1557.
Johann III. was (Manuel ) and his second wife Maria of Spain was born as the eldest son of King Emanuel I.. He was was of high priest as the Bishop of Viseu and the important Portuguese humanist, Luis Teixeira Lobo, the Rector of the University of Siena, educated. Sixteen -year old he should be engaged to Eleanor of Castile (1498-1558), which was, however, married his third wife of his father. After the death of his father he ascended on December 19, 1521 to the Portuguese throne.
Politically motivated was the marriage of his sister Isabella of Portugal (1503-1539) with Charles V. After removal colonial political disputes and upon payment of a dowry of one million ducats by John III. found the wedding on March 10, 1526 held in Seville. Shortly before, he had married the sister of Charles V. Catherine of Castile on 15 February in 1526.
Johann III. when the king went into the Portuguese history who brought the Inquisition into the country. His father had in 1496, following the example of the Catholic Kings in Spain, the Jews expelled from Portugal (see persecution of Jews and anti-Semitism ), but at the same time allowing Jews who converted to Christianity were allowed to remain. Probably hung many of these " New Christians " ( Cristãos - Novos ), who were not voluntarily converted to the Catholic faith, but secretly continue their ancient religion. Johann III. therefore instructed the Inquisition to investigate the faith practices of the "New Christians". Over the next 200 years, 1454 people were sentenced to death by the Inquisition in Portugal. 1540 allowed Johann III. also the Jesuits to settle in the country.
Overall, Portugal was at the time of John III. at the height of his power. However, already during his reign began the easing of political influence. In foreign policy focused Johann III. , Like its predecessors, on the acquisition of overseas colonies. Already in 1524 was internationally recognized at the Congress of Badajoz, the Portuguese claim to Brazil. In 1532 the first permanent settlement was founded in Brazil. The king awarded since 1534 large areas of land in Brazil as a fief ( donatárias ) and thus fostering the development of the country. 1545 Salvador da Bahia was founded as the capital of Brazil. Under John III. were conquered Aden, Diu, Celebes, Muscat and Sur. He renounced the Philippines and secured for the Moluccas. 1557 Macao was established the first Portuguese trading settlement in Imperial China.
On February 15, 1525, he married Catherine of Castile in Lisbon (* January 14, 1507; † January 12, 1578 ), daughter of Philip the Handsome and Joanna the Mad. She was thus a sister of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and the step-mother of John III. Eleanor of Austria.
With Catherine he had the following children:
- Alfonso (* 1526 † 1526)
- Maria ( * October 15, 1527; † July 12, 1545 ), by marriage, Queen of Spain ∞ 1543 Philip II, King of Spain
- Isabella ( * 1529, † 1529)
- Beatriz (* 1530, † 1530)
- Emanuel (* 1531, † 1537 ), heir to the throne in 1535 determined
- Philip (* 1533, † 1539), heir to the throne in 1537 determined
- Dionysus ( Dinis ) (* 1535, † 1537 ),
- John Manuel (* 1537, † 1554 ), Crown Prince of Portugal; ∞ 1552 Joan of Spain ( 1535-1573 )
- Anton (* 1539, † 1540)
As all the sons of King John III. died before this, his grandson Sebastian I followed him to the Portuguese throne.