Pool, which did not go to school and was taught at home, made in 1847 graduated from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. After successfully studying law he was admitted in the same year to the bar, after which he worked in his home town as a lawyer until 1856; During this time he also worked in agriculture.
1856 began his political career with his election to the Senate of North Carolina, of which he was a second time in 1858. At this time he was close to the already in resolution Whigs; together with many members of this party, he joined then in the new opposition party, for which he ran in 1860 as governor of North Carolina. However, he was defeated by incumbent John Willis Ellis.
Later, he stepped over to the Republicans, for which he again sat 1864-1865 in the State Senate. On 8 February 1865 he was elected by the legislature of North Carolina in the U.S. Senate, but he could not take up his duties as a result of the civil war, as his state this right of representation had been revoked. After this happened in 1868, the pool was elected a second time and took his seat in Washington on July 4, 1868. He remained until March 3, 1873 in the Senate; for re-election, he joined not to.
John Pool, whose nephew Walter F. Pool in 1883 belonged to the U.S. House of Representatives for North Carolina, worked after the end of his political activity as a lawyer in Washington, where he died in 1884.