Joint product pricing
The joint production (including composite production ) is a special form of production types and describes the common or simultaneous production of multiple products into a single operational production process ( for example, a chemical reaction) or the ( intentional or unintentional ) production of by- products during production. The resulting products are called joint products.
In the perspective of an ecological production management is the joint production of a rule to a production, since all are mostly "down" provided results of a production also seen with the prefix in this, so waste, waste heat, waste water, etc. These are also with emerging products that usefully should be pursued not only in terms of sustainability, but also by the cost accounting and calculation. Such an approach often suggests possible solutions to utilize such products also, or at least reducing their seizure and disposal costs.
Essentials of joint production
A distinction is made between
- The rigid joint production and
- The steerable joint production.
In the rigid joint production, the products come in a fixed ratio to each other on (ie stoichiometric). In the second case, different (e.g. in refineries ) Quantity ratios are also possible by varying the process parameters.
Typically the product is the primary product, the by-products or others. For economic calculation of co-products, the residual method is commonly used, although a cause-related allocation of costs is not possible.
Co-products can economically represent both costs and revenues. So may incur costs due to the disposal or responsibility of environmental protection in a chemical company co-products. The other way around, for example, heat generated due to the production process, are used for the hot water system of a company. This helps to create factual bundling effects.
Often the side items are also sold for further processing. Then you can relieve the total cost of the main products for the proceeds of the byproducts. Co-products can therefore in addition to the reduction of waste even increase profits and strengthen the market position of a company by a broader product range.
If you can not distinguish between major and minor products, the co-product calculation is based on the market value of the loan.
The word derives from the Middle High German verbs couple, pair = " put on a leash, connect " from. One therefore finds the terms coproduct and combined production instead of by-product and co-products for these facts.
Classic examples of dome productions are:
- Chlor-alkali electrolysis with the co-products of chlorine, caustic soda and hydrogen:
- Phenol synthesis by the Cumolhydroperoxidverfahren with the co-products phenol and acetone
- The inevitable production of gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil in the processing of petroleum
- The generation of extraction meal and vegetable oil in the extraction of oil seeds
- The production of glycerol in the manufacture of biodiesel
- The generation of electricity and heat in cogeneration plant
- Extraction of firewood from the waste of timber production
- The production of bran and flour in the production of cereal flour
- The simultaneous transport of passenger and cargo capacity for operation of a commercial aircraft
- Plasma fractionation.