JP-8

JP 8

Fossil

Kerosene, additives

Mixture of 8008-20-6 and 68551-17-7

8 mm2 / s ( 20 ° C)

0.775 to 0.840 kg / L ( 15.6 ° C)

205-300 ° C

37.8 ° C

Risk

301 310 - 303 361 353 - 304 340 - 308 313 - 321 331​‐​332 313​‐​362​‐​370 378​‐​391​‐​403 233Vorlage:P-Sätze/Wartung/mehr than 5 sets - 403 235 - 405-501

JP -8, or JP8 ( Jet Propellant, such as jet fuel ) is an aviation turbine fuel for jet aircraft, whose standard was set in 1990 by the United States. The fuel based on kerosene. It is a replacement for the JP -4 fuel, which was used in the U.S. Air Force to about autumn 1996.

JP -8 is less benzene ( a carcinogen ) and less hexane ( a neurotoxin ) as JP- fourth But this, the fuel smells stronger than JP -4 and behaves much oily than the rather thin liquid JP- fourth Workers who come into contact with JP -8, report that they can still smell and taste hours after completion of the work JP -8. JP-8 as less quickly evaporates due to the high boiling point of contaminated surfaces remain longer wetted and the probability of a direct contact with the fuel increases.

JP -8 was designed to have a heavy flammable and therefore less dangerous fuel and thereby increase the security in everyday life and the survival of the troops in the field. It is planned to use JP- 8 to about 2025. The fuel was used on some NATO bases in 1978. Its NATO code is F -34. The specifications are defined for example in the military standard MIL -DTL- 83133 and British Defence Standard 91-87.

JP -8 is used as a universal fuel in military diesel engines. Since the cetane number is not specified, however, there is in modern highly supercharged diesel engines problems with the ignition delay at cold start and idle with a cold engine. Likewise, the lubricating ability is not specified. Therefore, this aircraft fuel for use in common rail systems is only conditionally suitable. There is also a reference or decrease fuel according to MIL -DTL- 46162 with tighter tolerances and additional inter alia specified cetane number. In addition to refueling aircraft, JP -8 is also used for the operation of heaters or furnaces, tanks or other military vehicles.

As additives to improve fuel properties include the following additives:

  • As corrosion protection agent is a mixture of fatty acids, mainly dilinoleic 4 g / m³ to 8 g / m³.
  • When antifreeze to 1994 ethylene glycol monomethyl ether ( EGME ), since 1994, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether ( DIEGME ) with a volume fraction of 0.10 to 0.15 percent.
  • For the thermal stability of a Detergent-/Dispersantadditiv (formerly also called HD - additive ) is based on soap mixed with phenolic antioxidants in a concentration of 0.256 g / m³ used. The exact composition is patent protected.

The fuel Jet -A1 used in civil aviation kerosene based on the same places but with fewer additives.

The U.S. Navy uses a similar fuel, JP- fifth JP -5 has an even higher flash point than JP -8, but only on aircraft carriers, where the safety aspect outweighs the costs, used because of its higher procurement costs generally. JP -8 is used for drinking water for the generation of heat and electricity, and for melting ice in the Amundsen -Scott South Pole Station. It was used there, as he is one of the few fuels which does not flocculate or gel at the local environmental conditions.

JP-8 100 is a version of JP-8 with other additives intended to increase its thermal stability at 100 ° F (55 ° C). The addition consists among other things of surfactants, metal inhibitors and antioxidants. The version in use since 1994. The additives reduce slagging and fouling in engine injection systems. In civil aviation, this variant is used for example in police helicopters in Tampa, Florida.

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