Kabane (Japanese姓) were hereditary title in the historic registry Japan, defined the rank and political location. There were 24 such titles in the original system, after the reform of 684 for eight.

Kabane old time

The Kabane is hereditary able title, who approached the uji ( family groups, clans ). These were excellent according to origin, property or profession. They were the clans or family name readjusted connected with no.

Uji were much branched large families or groups who traced their origins to the same person ( Emperor ) and Kami, but often contributed with their own Uji - specific name, all members of the same Kabane substantially. The origins of this classification system go back to the Japanese early period (4th - 5th century). There are 24 different known Kabane, which were not specified in an exact order. Ceremony (or increase) was carried out by the ruler. Chance of ceremonies also made ​​to deserving individuals. Overall, this system was, however, was particularly before the introduction of Hofrangsystem ( the Chinese model ), too inflexible, since had with award of a Kabane privileges to the ( sometimes very large ) family associations that certain hereditary functions at court, connected. The Klanoberhäupter controlled certain, as tomo - or -be designated, professional groups ( guilds ), which probably had a tenants - like status.

Some ranks:

  • Omi (臣): Hofadlige of the blood,
  • Muraji (连): Hofadlige, descendants of the kami,
  • Miyatsuko (造): Heads of professional groups in the service of Tennō
  • Kuni no miyatsuko (国 造): Heads of a province
  • Kimi (公, kō ),
  • Kimi (君, kun )
  • Atai (値) (also atahi reading, Atae )
  • Fubito (史): Schreiber,
  • Agatanushi (県 主): gentry entrusted with the management of imperial estates,
  • Suguri (村 主): village mayor, often immigrants.

Kabane from 684

Under Emperor Temmu set (八 色 の 姓Yakusa no kabane; hasshō ) with Edict of 684/10/1 an 8-step ranking system. Already in the years before had begun to promote individual Uji into corresponding Kabane. For example, lent Temmu - tennō 680/81 to eighteen individual persons from 14 clans the title muraji. The old Kabane, however, insisted on, so took no reclassification. This raises some problems of attribution. Essentially the most old kimi (公) were transferred to the highest class Mahito; omi, kimi ( letters kun ) to asomi. Many obito, miyatsuko, kishi, atahi, Fuhito, agatanushi etc. into the new - lower in rank - being ( 680-1 ) to muraji, then left some of this after 684 to Sukune or imiki, usually in muraji. The "old" - higher standing - muraji were mostly Sukune. Many of the most influential Uji, who traced their origin to Kami (for which it naturally, however, no historical evidence are ), also received the rank Sukune. Ceremonies of the lower four ranks are only from the government Mommus ( 697-707 ) in the annals.

In later times became emperor descendants, the " sorted out " usually in the 5th generation of the imperial family were, ie them were given surname to Mahito. In summary, it remains to say that the top two ( new ) ranks, descendants of the imperial house were reserved.

A systematic reclassification of all Uji did not take place. A detailed breakdown of the genealogies was in Shinsen Shōjiroku of the ninth century, while the individual Uji were divorced in three (coarse ) Categories:

Ranking: Yakusa no Kabane

Later rank increases were granted ( dt large) for deserving families by awarding the prefix O.

Later, when clans auftrennten more and more into separate families who Kabane came slowly out of use.