The KAJKAVIAN [ kajka ʋiʃ ː ] ( kroat. kajkavski, kajkavština ) is a South Slavic dialect which is spoken in Croatia. As the Čakavische and in contrast to the Štokavischen KAJKAVIAN is only there to use and - with the exception of the few Kajkavian varieties of Burgenland, where the Burgenland-Croatian literary language is used - completely covered by the Croatian standard language. The Kajkavian dialects are spoken in the north; also the capital Zagreb is in the language area, which gives the dialect of a certain prestige.
Between the Kajkavian and the neighboring Slovenian dialects a dialect continuum, so that dialects in border areas neighboring dialects on the other side of the border are often more similar than more distant on your side; the state border is only on the standard level, a language border. The name comes from the Kajkavisch in the dialects of this dialect group as well as the Slovenian common question word kaj ( German was) - in contrast to čakavischen CA and the štokavischen STO / Sta. The Kajkavian dialects are those of all Croatian dialects that differ most from the Štokavischen based on the default language. They are therefore for speaker, the only master the standard language, often difficult to understand.
The KAJKAVIAN differs, apart from the eponymous question word, by a number of distinctive phonological and morpho- syntactic features of the other Croatian and Serbian varieties.
A striking morphosyntaktisches distinguishing feature is the formation of the future tense in Kajkavian. Instead of forming with " CU ", " CES ", "CE ", etc. in conjunction with supine infinitive or use the speaker of the Kajkavian "bum ", "bus", "bu ", etc. (or " Budem " ... ) in conjunction with the past participle active on - l, which corresponds to the Futurbildung in Slovenian.
- An example of "I'll show you the ":
Kajkavisch " Bum pokazal ti " (or " ... pokazao "; Slovenian " Bom ti pokazal " ) instead of standard Croatian " Pokazat cu ti"
In addition, in Kajkavian the future tense ( instead of the simple present tense form) is used much more frequently in the near future than in the Croatian standard language.
The Language field of Kajkavian dialects extending from the Kupa in the southwest to the borders Slovenia and Hungary to the north. In the east and south, the boundary of the dialect Kajkavian to Štokavischen corresponds roughly to the former border civil Croatia to the former Military Frontier and Slavonia. Along this dialect boundary there enclaves on both sides of the other dialect group. The dialects of the region around Karlovac form transitional dialects to Čakavischen with which they have a short common border in the southwest. With adjacent to the northwest eastern Slovenian dialects the KAJKAVIAN forms a dialect continuum that begins to dissolve only under the influence of different standard languages in recent times.
Traditional urban centers of the region are Kajkavian Zagreb and Varaždin. Especially in Zagreb, the use of Kajkavian but was pushed back in recent times under the influence of the standard language and as a result of migration from other parts of the country. In rural areas such as the Zagorje or Turopolje KAJKAVIAN the prevailing mood is today.
The dialects of Gorski Kotar at the Croatian - Slovenian border, north of Rijeka are overviews of the dialects of the Croatian or Serbo-Croat often included in this category Kajkavian because they have some similarities with this, including the question word kaj. However, they have no territorial connection to the other Kajkavian dialects and are typologically and genetically considered transitional dialects between the Čakavischen and Slovene.
The Croatian population of the two villages Hidegség and Fertőhomok south of Lake Neusiedl in Hungary Győr- Moson -Sopron also speaks Kajkavisch. They belong to the group of people living in Hungary Burgenland Croats.
- Interrogative what? kajkavisch kaj?
- Standard language STO?
- Kajkavisch: kaj bum?
- Standard language Nemoj biti glup, magarče jedan.
- Kajkavisch Jel sam malo predi falačec kruha.
- Standard language Jeo sam malo prije komad kruha.
- Kajkavisch Ne bu (to) ISLO.
- Standard language Ne Moze tako. ( It is not so. )
- Kajkavisch: jel bu kaj?