? Kalisz / i [ kaliʃ ] ( German: Kalisz ) is a Polish district town in the Greater Poland Voivodeship - around 100 km from the cities of Wroclaw, Poznan and Lodz, on the Prosna. Due to the very early written reference to Kalisz can boast of being one of the oldest documented cities in Poland. Economic importance consists in the areas of the textile industry, mechanical engineering and the manufacture of musical instruments. Kalisz is the seat of three universities.
- 6.1 traffic
- 7.1 educational institutions
- 9.1 theater
- 9.2 Museums
- 9.3 Structures
- 9.4 Cemeteries
- 9.5 environment
- 9.6 Regular events
In 2000, the villages Dobrzec and Sulisławice were incorporated.
The coat of arms of Kalisz consists of a two-towered castle, push them over the gate of which a Polish -clad attendants in the horn, surrounded by four stars. On the battlements of the towers spring up three cattails. Red in silver.
Kalisz is mentioned around the year 150 AD as Calisia, a place of Germanic Diduni ( Vandals ) by the Alexandrian geographer Claudius Ptolemy, is thus one of the first documented proven towns in the area of present-day Poland. From 1193 Kalisch was the capital of Piast duchy, which was converted in 1305 to the province.
After the second partition of Poland Kalisz belonged from 1793 to 1807 to Prussia, then to the Duchy of Warsaw and in 1815 to the Kingdom of Poland. On February 28, 1813 Federal Treaty between Prussia and Russia was signed in Kalisz, which led to the Wars of Liberation. After 1815, Kalisch developed into an industrial city. In September 1835 it hosted the Grand Review of Kalisch with over 60,000 participants instead. On August 7, 1914, the city was completely destroyed by German artillery fire and then rebuilt in a modern style.
Kalisz in 1918, after 125 years, again part of a Polish state, according to its new direction. From 1939 to 1945 Kalisch was as a city and county seat of the district administrator for the district of the same name with the German Reich District Warta country. January 23, 1945 Kalisch was captured almost intact by the Soviet army. From 1975 to 1998, Kalisz Kalisz capital of the province, which included parts of Lower Silesia.
Kalisz is since 1992 the seat of a Catholic diocese. Since 1793, a Protestant community exists in the city, which belong to about 300 members today. There is also a Polish- Orthodox community ( about 50 members), a Lutheran congregation of the Evangelical-Augsburg Church in Poland and a Baptist church. The Jews of the city were deported in 1940 by the German occupiers.
The Mayor stands before the city Board and is also head of the administration. The city council comprises 25 members. In the City Council the following parties are represented:
- Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Ziemi Kaliskiej (2 seats)
- Independent Block " Wszystko dla Kalisza " (5 seats)
- PO ( Civic Platform ) (5 seats)
- PiS ( Law and Justice ) (5 seats)
- Samorządny Kalisz (6 seats )
The economic life of the city is dominated by the industry. Predominant industries are the textile industry, the food and beverage industry as well as the aerospace and metal industry.
The urban bus company KLA transported with their newly acquired buses on 16 urban and suburban twelve lines total of 19 million passengers per year. As a city with the highest car density Kalisz Poland suffers from a shortage of parking spaces to be mitigated by the introduction of parking management.
In addition to twelve professional and 24 technical schools, there are three universities with a total of 5,500 students.
- Erfurt ( Germany ), since 1982
- Hamm ( Germany ), since 1991
- Skin Mont (France), since 1959
- Kamjanez - Podilskyj (Ukraine )
- La Louviere (Belgium )
- Tongeren (Belgium )
- Martin ( Slovakia)
- Preston (United Kingdom)
- Southampton ( United Kingdom)
- Heerhugowaard (Netherlands)
- Adriatic Sea ( Italy)
- Szentendre (Hungary )
- Minsk - Frunzenski ( Belarus )
Culture and sights
- Wojciech Bogusławski Theatre
- The District Museum
- Franciscan Church of St. Stanislaus (13th - 18th century gothic, baroque interiors )
- Garrison Church ( former Jesuit, later Protestant Church, 17-18th century, Baroque)
- Cathedral of Saint Nicholas ( gothic - neo-Gothic, Baroque interiors, an interesting chapel in Art Nouveau style, 13th - 19th century)
- Urban Parish Church, St. Joseph, (17th - 18th century Baroque)
- Jesuit Church (former Bernardine ) to the Annunciation (18th century, Baroque)
- Nazarethanerkirche to Saint Joseph and Saint Peter of Alcantara (18th century, Rococo )
- Protestant cemetery (from 17th century). There we meet all the names of industrialists, whose name in the history of the city of Kalisz (19th century) are listed.
- Russian Orthodox cemetery (from 18th century )
- Jewish cemetery (district Widok ). The only still -preserved small Jewish cemetery ( 19th century) in the present-day city. The oldest, not far from the city center, with some medieval tombs, was destroyed in 1940 by the Nazis.
- Military cemetery (1916). Here are also many German, who were settled from 1939 in Kalisz.
- Soviet Cemetery ( 1946). The large commemorative pillar consists of the granite of the New Reich Chancellery in Berlin.
- Gołuchów Castle, 20 kilometers northwest of the city. Monumental noble residence with landscaped grounds and art collections, part of the National Museum poses.
- Skalmierzyce Station ( German: Skalmeritz ), two kilometers south of the present city limits. Giant neo-gothic building, built around 1905 to 1918 border station of the German Empire.
- Concerts of the urban symphony orchestra and choir students polifonia
Sons and daughters of the town
- Sabbatai ben Josef (1641-1714), Jewish writer, creator of the first Jewish printing house in Dyhernfurth
- Dawid Flash (1793-1876), gynecologist
- Karl Heinrich Hermes (1800-1856), German journalist and publicist
- Thekla von Gumpert (1810-1897), writer
- Ludwig Adolf Neugebauer (1821-1890), gynecologist
- Maria Angela Truszkowska (1825-1899), blessed and foundress
- Adam Asnyk (1838-1897), Polish poet of the 19th century
- Henryk Dobrzycki (1841-1914), Polish physician and philanthropist
- Arnold Fibiger (1847-1915), industrialist
- Franciszek Ludwik Neugebauer (1856-1914), gynecologist
- Roman Statkowski (1859-1925), composer and music educator
- Juliusz fellow (1862-1942), superintendent, later Bishop of the Evangelical Church in Poland, prisoner in Sachsenhausen concentration camp
- Henryk Melcer - Szczawiński (1869-1928), pianist, conductor, composer and music educator
- Stanisław Wojciechowski (1869-1953), second President of the Republic of Poland
- Jerzy Świrski (1882-1959), Vice- Admiral
- Zygmunt Idzikowski (1884-1911), poet
- Julian Ulrych (1888-1959), Polish military and politicians
- Maria Dabrowska (1889-1965), Polish writer
- Sophia Poznanska (1906-1942), resistance fighter
- Yehiel Krize (1908-1968), Israeli painter
- Janusz Makowski (1912-1972), Polish journalist and Roman Catholic politician, Member of the Sejm of the Republic of Poland in the III. , IV and V. legislature
- Tadeusz Pniewski (* 1920), doctor, memoirist
- Alina Szapocznikow (1926-1973)
- Richard Width ( b. 1928 ), pastor and founder of the Christian scouts " Royal Rangers "
- Janina Dawidowicz (1930 ), writer
- Stanislaw Pawlak ( born 1933), judge of the International Tribunal for the Law
- Werner Wolf ( b. 1942 ), football manager
- Wojciech Kunicki ( b. 1955 ), Polish German scholar and university teacher
- Adam Szejnfeld (born 1958 ), from 2007 to 2009, Deputy Minister of Economy of Poland
- Mietek Szczesniak (born 1964 ), musician
- Anna Grzesiak (* 1987) Polish professional triathlete
Associated with the city of personalities
- Stefan Giller (1833-1918), Polish writer and teacher in Kalisz and Opatowek
- Maria Konopnicka, Polish poet
- Buried Mieszko III. , Duke of Poland, died here in 1202 and was here
- Stanisław Napierała ( b. 1936 ), bishop of Kalisz in 1992 and an honorary citizen of the city since 2004
- Alexander Ulrych, wholesale merchant, resistance fighters, a prisoner in the Buchenwald concentration camp, worked here 1912-1944