Kalocsa [ kɒloʧɒ ] (Eng. Kollotschau ) is a city in southern Hungary with 17,165 inhabitants ( as of 2011), one of the oldest towns in Hungary in general, and of great historical importance.
Kalocsa is 120 km south of Budapest, on the eastern bank of the Danube.
Founded in 1001 King Stephen in the context of the establishment of a clergy in his diocese a Christianization of Hungary in Kalocsa, first bishop is Astrik - Anastas. 1135 receives the diocese to the rank of archbishopric. Built around 100 years later Archbishop Benedict a first stone castle ( the original building was made of wood ).
1529 destroyed the Turkish troops, the city completely. The episcopal castle continued to be used as a fortress and even renovated in 1602, the city of decay but remained still in 1664, the Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi reported only " a mosque, three general stores and a little inn ." In their expulsion in 1686, the Turks burned the bishop's castle down, Archbishop Kollonich began the reconstruction with the renovation of the Gothic chapel, his successors extended the construction to its demolition and the construction of the new residence from 24 May 1775. At the same time also busy the city again.
Founded in 1784 archbishop Ádám Patachich from the partly medieval book collections of the monastery and its more than 17,000 volumes comprehensive private collection of the episcopal library, expanded by his successors on, now contains over 140,000 volumes, including priceless codices.
1875 large parts of the city were destroyed in a fire.
The palace suffered heavy damage during World War II that have not yet been fully patched up again today. As before, however, is one of the greatest Hungarian Kalocsa seat dioceses.
Cathedral Square with the Bishop's Palace
Library in the Bishop's Palace
Archbishop's residence in Kalocsa
Kalocsa is the center of a agrarian -oriented region. Beginning of the 20th century sparked Kalocsa Szeged as a center of Hungarian paprika industry and is today the world's largest growing area for peppers. Other important pillars of the region are wine, fruit, flax, hemp and cereals, as well as fishing.
Kalocsa is increasingly also a tourist destination, especially for short- trippers from Danube cruises. In this sense, a thermal bath was opened in 2002.
The city is also the seat of priest and teacher seminars.
The population of Kalocsa is falling, 1999, the city had 17,807 inhabitants.
In addition to the more tourist- oriented, but informative "Paprika Museum " Cathedral Square with the canons', the Cathedral of the Assumption of the organ on which Franz Liszt is played frequently, and especially the Archbishop's Palace of importance. In the palace next to the library, especially the state-room, the oratory and the ceiling frescoes are noteworthy. The former episcopal Park is now open to the public and contains numerous dendrological rarities.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Ágnes Lakatos (born 1962 ), jazz singer
Kalocsa has the following twinning:
- Romania Cristuru Secuiesc, Romania
- Germany Kirchheim unter Teck, Germany
- Denmark Karup, Denmark
- Spain Totana, Spain
Since 2007, a student exchange with the Ratsgymnasium Goslar ( Germany ). Likewise, there is a student exchange with the Freihofstraße -Realschule Kirchheim unter Teck ( Germany ).