The district is located in the Karimganj Barak Valley in southern Assam on the border with Bangladesh. In the south, it also borders the neighboring states of Mizoram and Tripura. Neighboring districts are Cachar in the north- east, Hailakandi in the east (both Assam ), Mamit ( Mizoram ) to the south and North Tripura ( Tripura ) in the southwest. In the west and north west, the border is to Bangladesh.
The area of the district of Karimganj is 1,808 square kilometers. The area belongs mostly to the level of the river Barak. Geographically, the Barak Valley as an extension of the flood plains of East Bengal ( Bangladesh ) is to be seen while it is isolated from the rest of Assam by the Barail Mountains. In the north- east of the district, the Barak branched into the two arms of the river Surma and Kushiyara, both ultimately flow into the Meghna. The latter forms the northern boundary of the district of Karimganj against Bangladesh. In addition, the Longai, a tributary of the Kushiyara from south to north through the district area flows.
While the northern part of the district is flat, extend to the south of the mountains that limit the Barak Valley, in the district area into it. Three elongated ridges taking place in the north-south direction through the District Area: up to 636 meters high Chhatachura Mountains in the southeast on the border of the district Hailakandi, the approximately 240 -meter-high Adamail or Patharia mountains in the west to the border with Bangladesh and the approximately 460 -meter-high Duhalia or Pratapgarh mountains in the south -central part of the district, around 30 percent of the area of the district is forested Karimganj (1997 /98).
The history of the region around Karimganj is closely associated with the Bengal and Bangladesh today for the associated city Sylhet. With the conquest by Hazarat Shah Jalal in 1328 Sylhet and thus the area of Karimganj came to the Sultanate of Bengal, in 1576 it became part of the Mughal Empire. After the battle of Plassey in Bengal in 1765 came under British rule. The area was incorporated as part of the district of Sylhet in British India. 1874 moved the district from Bengal in the province of Assam.
During the partition of India in 1947, the district Sylhet because of its Muslim majority Pakistan ( East Pakistan, today's Bangladesh) was slammed. The eastern part of the district of Karimganj but came to India and was incorporated in the District of Cachar. In 1983, the district Karimganj solvent as a separate district of Cachar.
According to the Indian census of 2011, the district Karimganj has 1,217,002 inhabitants. Compared to the last 2001 census, the population was 20.7 percent and more than in the central Assam grew ( 16.9 percent). The population density is 673 inhabitants per square kilometer, well above the average of the state (397 inhabitants per square kilometer). The majority of the population, focusing on rural areas: The degree of urbanization is 9.1 percent, considerably lower than the already low average of Assam ( 14.1 per cent). The literacy rate is 79.7 percent higher than the average of the state ( 73.2 percent).
Due to its location, the Barak Valley, on which the district Karimganj heard on culturally strong affinities to Bengal. Thus, the main language is Bengali. On Distrikebene it has in Karimganj as well as in the two other districts of Barak Valley next to the Assamese, the official language of Assam, an official status. The majority of the inhabitants of the district of Karimganj are Muslims. According to the 2001 census, 52.3 percent of the population profess Islam, 46.7 percent are Hindus.