Kashan (Persian كاشان ) is a city of Isfahan province in the central highlands of Iran. It is located about 200 km south of Tehran and has a significant textile industry. The Persian word for " tile ", Kasi, derives from the name of the city from, because in the Middle Ages had Kashan an important ceramics industry.
The core city has about 275,000 inhabitants (as grossing 2012), together with other places of the administrative unit about 317,000. Kashan is located at the northern edge of the Kuhrud Mountains on the edge of the central Iranian desert. It is surrounded by the first great oasis along the road from Qom to Kerman.
According to her the Kaschanteppiche were named ( a classical type of Persian carpets ), which were widely famous in the 16th century under the Safavid and probably go back to the Seljuk Turks. Today Kashan is an important center of the Iranian textile industry, most of the mechanical carpet looms are in Kashan.
Kashan is also one of the centers of the Iranian rose water production. The fed by water-rich sources villages just outside it are heavily used for agriculture.
In cooperation with China in the oil and gas field of Zavareh - Kashan is examined for efficiency.
In 1974 was founded the first university of the city, the University of Kashan, in which about 4,500 students are enrolled. In 1986 the Kashan University of Medicine.
40 km southeast of Kashan is located near the town of Natanz underground uranium enrichment plant using the gas centrifuge principle, which is part of the Iranian nuclear program.
Kashan is located in a valley on the northern edge of the Kuhrud Mountains. Due to the low-lying location, heat can accumulate within the valley and can be particularly hot summer. Kashan has a typical desert climate with very hot summers and cold winters. Due to its central location within the heartland rainfall are rare. Most rain account for the winter months, which may also snowing. Snow storms as they last, in the winter of 2007 when the entire city and the surrounding desert was buried under a centimeter thick layer of snow, but they are the exception. The population also prefers to spend the summer months in the surrounding villages, because they have in their higher position a milder climate. Swept empty streets during lunchtime therefore belong in the summer of everyday life. In Kashan, there are also a lot of ice cream parlors that offer a refreshing dip with traditional ice.
The central Persian highlands is one of the oldest cradles of civilizations. An Age of settlements in the oasis of Kashan can not specify itself. In ongoing excavations in Tappe Sialk in the precincts of Kashan to houses from the 6th millennium BC, some of the oldest evidence of metal extraction from the 4th millennium, protoelamitische writing tablets, cylinder seals, pottery found from the 3rd millennium and of four Elamite ziggurats.
In the 11th century, the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I. was in the center of Kashan building of a fortress whose walls ( Qal ʿ e -ye ǧalālī ) still stand today.
In 1778 the town was completely destroyed by an earthquake. It cost 8,000 lives. However, the city was rebuilt - the spacious new buildings of the 18th and 19th centuries make from the time of the Qajar dynasty now a tourist attraction dar. The most famous include two properties that were built by the architect Ustad Ali Maryam 1850: The Khaneh Tabatabaei ( Hane -ye ʾ ī tabataba ( " ʾ ī tabataba - house" ) ) was built for the influential ʾ ī tabataba family around 1840. The Khaneh Borudjerdi ( Hane -ye Borūǧerdī ) was the rich merchant Haji Mehdi Boroujerdi built as a wedding gift for his bride, who came from the family ʾ ī tabataba. The Hane -ye ʿ Abbāsīhā is also a well-known buildings in the city.
A focus point, one of the oldest and most famous Persian gardens, the Bag -e Fin ( " Fin Garden" ), which presumably existed for 7000 years. It is fed by abundant sources of water from the nearby mountains, including the Cesme -ye Soleiman ( " Salomon source "). In its present form, the garden was designed for Shah Abbas the Great. The Safavid dynasty employed him as a recreational park. The buildings were rebuilt by the Qajar rulers, but corresponds to the arrangement of the orchards and the marble basin with its water features largely the original.
The House of Borūǧerdī family
AQA Bozorg Mosque ( historical recording Ernst Hoeltzers of 1873)
- Sweden Umea, Sweden
Sons and daughters of the town
- Jamshid Mas'ud al- Kashi (around 1380-1429 ), mathematician and astronomer
- Sohrab Sepehri (1928-1980), Iranian poet and painter of modernity
- Nossrat Peseschkian (1933-2010), Iranian- German nerve specialist, psychiatrist and psychotherapist
- Javad Kazemian ( b. 1981 ), football player
- David Alliance ( born 1932 ), British businessman and politician