The Kazakh alphabet is the alphabet of the Kazakh language. Officially Kazakh in the Arab and Cyrillic script is written, the introduction of the Latin alphabet is considered.
- 6.1 runes
- 6.2 Text Example
The Kazakh received late in a written language. Previously served on the regional transport languages like Tschagataische as a written language. Only in the 18th century was the Kazakh language has its own alphabet based on the Arabic script.
When the Soviet Union was created, a Latin alphabet was for the people living in the territory of the Soviet Union in 1926 Kazakhs initially developed on the basis of the unified alphabet. Eleven years later, this then was, like all the alphabets of the Turkic languages on the territory of the Soviet Union, replaced by a system based on the Cyrillic alphabet. This alphabet is still valid today in Kazakhstan. The Kazakhs who live in the People's Republic of China, to write their language officially in Arabic script, which was further developed so that all vowels of the Kazakh language can be distinguished.
1998, a new Kazakh- Kyrgyz Latin alphabet was introduced, which was designed for cost reasons for both languages . This alphabet has been, however, not yet been introduced as the official alphabet, although it is already being used sporadically. The Kazakh news agency led to their website on 16 April 2004 in parallel with the Cyrillic and Latin this notation, what should especially benefit from living abroad in countries with Latin script Kazakhs. Meanwhile, the website of the Kazakh government in Latin script is available. In 2007, the Kazakh President once again confirmed that is held at the introduction of the Latin alphabet. In December 2012, the Kazakh government announced that 2025 was to be expected with the introduction of the Latin alphabet. But in early 2013, the introduction of these characters on the 2015 was preferred because two years later the country is host of the Expo and would therefore represent oriented modern and western.
Cyrillic writing system
The Kazakh Cyrillic alphabet is used in both Kazakhstan and Mongolia. In the nineteenth century, the Kazakh educator Ibrahim Altynsarin led the Cyrillic writing system first one at the Kazakhs. Both the Russian Missionarisbewegung and funded by Russia schools have significantly contributed to the strengthening of the Cyrillic alphabet in the nineteenth and the early twentieth century. Later the alphabet of Sarsen Amanzholov was revised and adopted in his repeated this form. It contains 42 letters: 33 letters from the ordinary Russian alphabet of the latest spelling reform as well as nine additional, newly developed letters to reflect the Kazakh- own sounds: Ә, Ғ, Қ, Ң, Ө, Ұ, Ү, Һ, І; until 1957, however Ӯ was used instead of Ұ. At the beginning of the Kazakh letters were arranged behind the Russian alphabet, with time but resulted in an order that has been sorted in the similar sounds or letters behind the respective models russian letters.
Although the letter Ф, Х, Һ, Ц, Ч, Щ, Ъ, Ь and Э ( and since 1957 also В, Ё ) exist in the alphabet as a relic of the Russian alphabet template, but are not used in any Kazakh word.
Of them only Ё, Ц, Ч, Щ, Ъ, Ь, Э and are used in Russian loanwords, to preserve the original orthography. The letter Х is similar in pronunciation to the Kazakh Қ. The letter Һ is only used in Arabic-Persian loanwords and is often pronounced as an unvoiced Х.
The letter И is the stressed vowel [i ] again, which is / borrowed from the letter combinations ЫЙ / əj / and ІЙ / ɪj. The letter У stands for / w / and the tense vowel [ u], which consists of the letter combinations ҰУ / ʊw /, ҮУ / ʉw /, ЫУ / əw / and ІУ / ɪw / was.
Arabic writing system
The Arabic writing system is still the official alphabet of the Kazakhs in the People's Republic of China. There it was introduced in the eleventh century and used as a traditional alphabet until the introduction of the Latin alphabet -based 1924. In the same year Akhmet Baitursynov published a reformed Arabic alphabet for Kazakhstan to the Arab lute non-existent also be able to reproduce in writing, which was not possible before. To represent the letters چ, پ, ڭ, گ and ۆ special, emerging only in Kazakh lute.
The Kazakh- Arabic alphabet has 29 letters and the ' big Hamza ', which is in word-initial and word with a soft vowel makes initial vowel. The direction in which the alphabet is written from right to left.
Letterforms in Kazakh- Arabic alphabet
Latin writing system
The Turkish Latin alphabet was used 1927-1940 in the Soviet Union until it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. Kazakh -language, who knew well the Latin writing system used in some cases also other variants of this writing system, which built upon the Turkish alphabet.
In the People's Republic of China, a variant of the Latin alphabet was introduced in 1964-84. After that, the formerly used Arabic script learned in Chinese regions a comeback.
As modernization measure, the Kazakh government has drawn up plans to finally put to replace the still current Cyrillic alphabet by the Latin script and put an end to the whole of Scripture chaos. 2007, it has begun to examine costs and other impacts in more detail.
Some websites of the Kazakh government are now read in both Cyrillic and Latin script. Among them http://www.government.kz/, the official website of the government and the site of Kazinform (also known under the name QazAqparat ).
On 13 December 2007, however, offered the Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev on, not to promote the changing of font too much: " For 70 years, read and write the Kazakh Cyrillic Over 100 nationalities live in our state so we need stability and peace.. . We should change the alphabet so do not rush. "
Ancient Writing Systems
The following writing systems have also been used previously in Kazakhstan, but today have no special significance for the Kazakhs:
Orkhon runes have great similarities to Germanic runes. They are read from right to left, while Germanic runes are unlike to read from left to right. This writing system has been used in some areas of Kazakhstan from the fifth to the tenth century. The language of the inscriptions was the language of the Kok - Turks.
Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
References and sources