Keller forest with High Lohr ( 656.7 m, left), Jeust ( 585 m, center) and desert garden ( 675.3 m, right); forward the Gilserberger heights
The basement is a forest to 675.3 m above sea level. NHN high low mountain range in Hesse, Germany. It is located in the western center of the Hessian Mountain West and Lower Lands at the interface to the foothills of the Rothaargebirge and is part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains.
The basement Forest has one of the largest undivided beech forest areas in Germany and includes the National Park basement Edersee the only National Park of Hesse. The Natural Park of Keller -Edersee covers almost the entire basement Forest.
- 3.1 Geology
- 3.2 Origin of the name
- 3.3 Settlement History
- 5.1 Flora
- 5.2 Fauna
The basement forest stretches in Northern Hesse in Waldeck- Frankenberg and Schwalm- Eder-Kreis. To the north lie the Lake Eder and Affolderner lake, to the north- east the site of the cellar Forest in the Eder valley drops off towards the east and southeast in the Valley of the Schwalm. To the south, via conductive Vogelsberg Oberhessische threshold connects with the ridge Hemberg. In the southwest of Keller forest passes over the valley of Wohra in the Castle Forest, and to the west is beyond the width Eder Struth.
On the northern edge of the forest or the basement on the south shore of Lake Eder Edersees the wildlife park is the Raptor Wildlife Park Lake Eder and the Buchenwald Information Centre Fagutop.
The basement forest is counted in the manual of the biogeographic division of Germany to the West Hesse Highlands (natural spatial feature unit group 34). Regardless, the author of the fine members follower publication he scores sheet 111 Arolsen, belonging to the Rhenish Slate Mountains because, more likely to Southshore Bergland (33) is, however, continuing the numbering of the manual.
The analysis is as follows ( in brackets surfaces by Environmental Atlas Hessen):
- 344 Keller forest ( 345.91 km ²) 344.0 Keller High Forest ( 53.07 km ²) 344.00 Jeust and Keller ( 40.87 km ²)
- 344.01 Löwenstein Mountains ( 12.20 km ²)
- 344.50 CHF Auer hall ( 21.46 km ²)
- 344.51 Lotheimer valleys ( 22.90 km ²)
- 344.52 Höhnscheid ( 10.02 km ²)
With Eder heights, in rather vague language, designates the unit 344.3 and south of the Edersees situated part of 533.4, corresponding to the area of the National Park basement Edersee.
Short description of natural areas
Core and height priorities of the cellar forest are the only two mountains, the 585 m high Jeust and the 675.3 m high desert garden plus additional peaks ( "Keller " ) existing Jeust and cellar in the south, the Central cellar forest with the Hohen Lohr ( 656.7 m ), the Great Aschkoppe ( 639.8 m), the Auenberg ( 610.7 m ) and the Ostausläufer Horse mountain ( 551.3 m) in the center and the Great Hardt with the Traddelkopf ( 626.4 m ) and the thicknesses head ( 603.7 m) in the north.
As a north-easterly spur of the basement beyond the valley of the Urff conduct at altitudes just under 450 meters reaching Löwenstein Mountains in the south east to the Hesse forest (see below) over.
The Wild Ungerberg country forms an opening to the east trough the Wild and the Wesebach which is enclosed to the southwest from the Middle cellar woods and to the northwest from the Great Hardt. At the interface to two natural areas are reached by 550 m, best-known and most striking mountain, however, is the 518.5 m high Homberg (Keller Forest) near Bad Wildungen in the east.
In the north of the forest, the Lake Eder basement trough includes both sides of the Edersees whose edge heights 400 m hardly exceed, on to the Grand Hardt.
The low Keller forest in central and northern West forms the western slope of the basement forest. North-north- west of the Horse Mountain follow the Franks Auer hall ( up to 505.9 m) to Frankenau and finally the Lotheimer valleys ( altitudes up to just over 400 m) to the valley of the Lorfe up to its confluence with the Eder and exceed their banks scarce. In the extreme northwest of the cellar forest, the natural space Höhnscheid connects with the 490.1 m high Höhnscheid.
Foothills of the cellar forest
The sandstone ridge of the Hesse forest is counted not the actual cellar forest in the transition ( to the main unit Ostwald Ecker edge sinks), the Löwenstein Mountains nearly fluent to the northeast.
The forest Truth, which connects the low- cellar forest to the west with the Rothaargebirge, no longer part of the basement Forest. While she was still regarded by the Federal Institute for Regional Studies under the direction of Emil Meynen and Joseph Schmithüsen the mid-1950s as part of the main unit Keller forest, but it was slammed by the same institution in restructuring in the following years of the newly created main unit Ostsauerländer mountainous border.
Not the natural area to the basement forest belonging, but still geologically part of the Rhenish Slate Mountains and also of the nature reserve cellar -Edersee is the small range of hills Hemberg, the south connects to Jeust and cellar. Since he already falls from the adjacent desert garden at a height level of 200 meters, it was the Gilserberger heights attributed (main unit Oberhessische threshold ), the northern most part it represents. Geologic rich shale rocks further south until just before Gilston. In a ostnordöstlichen line of Gilston by train, then north to Jesberg and, after interruption, to Bad Arolsen extent, they are enclosed by a Zechsteingürtel.
Geologically, the constructed mainly of Paleozoic rocks Kellerwaldsteig the easternmost foothills of the Rhenish Slate Mountains. Scenic it is counted as a separate entity but also to Westhessichen mountain and lowering land because the rivers Eder and Itter form a geographical boundary. Major rock types are the " Keller- quartzites ", chert, argillite, greywacke and diabase. A regional specialty is the dark red agate cellar, an iron pebbles.
Origin of the name
The name of the natural region is derived from the southern part of the basement Forest located above mentioned ridge basement. The origin of this name is interpreted in two different ways: From about 1600 the forest was intensively used by charcoal for the production of charcoal, which required numerous iron and copper works for their furnaces as fuel. So the name " Koehler forest " or dialect " Koeller forest " was born. Another interpretation refers to the heavily decimated by intensive use of the forest: " Bare forest ". From " Koeller forest " or " forest Bare " allegedly caused by sound shift, the name " Keller forest ".
That settled for a long time in the cellar woods and the mountains in one way or another, has been visited by humans, in addition to numerous ancient villages, deserted villages, many tumuli, several ring walls (see about desert garden ) and the ruins of the Quernstkirche among other castles, castle ruins and remnants of such ruins can be seen. These include the Hessenstein castle and the castle ruins Keseburg, Schönstein, Densberg and Lowenstein.
Almost all of the natural environment Kellerwaldsteig part of the Natural Park basement Edersee, the south still includes also the Hemberg. The northern part of the order of 5,724 hectares has been designated a National Park basement Edersee since 1 January 2004.
In addition, a large area of the European network "Natura 2000" ( FFH area and European bird sanctuary ) and in parts of protected forest. More FFH areas are among others the oak dry forests on the northern slopes and Lake Eder part of the above- mentioned basement in the southern part of the nature park and the Urff as a linear conservation area from the source to its mouth in the Schwalm. Small area to pass several nature and landscape protection areas. Primarily, the nature relates in the basement forest as one of the last unfragmented central European deciduous forests of international standing. The dominant forest type is called acid soil Luzulo - Buchenwald ( Beech Forest).
2005 Nature Park basement Edersee was taken by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation in the program " nature conservation project of total state representative significance," since June 25, 2011, it is included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Flora and Fauna
Since the 19th century is the northern part of the basement Forest, which is designated as a National Park basement Edersee since 2004, surrounded as a hunting ground of the waldeckischen prince of a gate. This is particularly original beech forests have received, however, were substantially damaged by high deer densities. About 30 percent of the trees are older than 140 years. The hunting and not forest wood use in mind. Main tree species is beech, which occurs here on bodensauerem location ( argillite, greywacke, quartzite ) mainly in Luzulo - Buchenwald. Worth mentioning are the many special locations on Lake Eder crags. Here are last primeval forest residues and gnarled sessile oak woods with Astloser grass lily and the largest Hessian occurrence of Pfingstnelke.
At the high- drical layers grow arnica and Maiden Pink, in the meadows of the valleys Marsh Orchid and Male orchid. Near the " Jägersburg " at Odershausen some rare Süntel Book occur. In cool - moist stream valleys of the rare, highly poisonous monkshood grows. In light oak and beech forests on calcareous subsoil the Türkenbundlilie occurs. In some places there are large stocks of rare March cup.
In the basement of forest breeding among other still or again Black Stork, Raven, six species of woodpeckers ( including the middle spotted woodpecker and the gray-headed woodpecker ), Black Kite and Red Kite ( who spent his highest population density in Hesse reached), peregrine falcon, boreal owl, honey buzzard, eagle owl and the great gray shrike.
A characteristic species of the cellar Forest is the red deer. In the National Park basement Edersee still fallow deer and mouflon occur. In addition, roe deer and wild boar are common. The wildcat is rare. On Lake Eder in 1934, the first raccoons were exposed, whose home is originally North America. Fox, badgers, pine and stone marten and polecat and stoat occur. Of the 19 species of bats living in Hesse previously 15 were detected. Another character animal of the forest is the basement of the Fire Salamander, which is strongly bound in Central Europe in deciduous forests. Other typical amphibian species are palmate newt and midwife toad. In the National Park nearly 1,000 beetle species from over 80 families have been detected so far.
By the Cellar forest are numerous footpaths, including the Kellerwaldsteig, an approximately 156 km long hiking trail that connects the mountains and cities of the Nature Park basement Edersee and National Park basement Edersee together. In addition, since 2005 there is the Urwaldsteig Lake Eder, which leads to about 68 km in length around the Lake Eder, where it passes through the dry oak forests on the north bank and the south of the lake and national parks, cellar -Edersee.
Mountains and high altitude
The lowest point of the basement Forest is located at the edge of Edertal the outskirts of Affoldern slightly below the dam of Lake Affolderner to 194 m in height; the contrary, the highest point of 675.3 meters in the desert garden:
Among the best known, but not necessarily to the highest mountains in the basement Forest belong (including all "six hundred " ) - by height in meters above mean sea level ( MSL ) sorted; for these and other mountains of the basement Forest see the list of mountains of the basement Forest:
- Desert Garden ( 675.3 m) - with basement forest tower; Jeust and basement
- High Lohr ( 656.7 m) - with television tower; Means Kellerwaldsteig
- Large Aschkoppe ( 639.8 m); Means Kellerwaldsteig
- Hunsrück ( 635.9 m) - foothills of the desert garden; Jeust and basement
- Traddelkopf ( 626.4 m) - the highest mountain in the National Park basement Edersee; Large Hardt
- Winterberg ( 616.6 m) - foothills of the Great Aschkoppe; Means Kellerwaldsteig
- Auenberg ( 610.7 m ) - east of the center forest cellar
- Small Aschkoppe ( 606.8 m) - foothills of the Great Aschkoppe; Means Kellerwaldsteig
- Maple head ( 604.1 m) - foothills of the Traddelkopfs; Large Hardt
- Thick head ( 603.7 m); Large Hardt
- Jeust ( 585.0 m); Jeust and basement
- Talgang ( 566.1 m) - south of the Great Hardt
- Horse Mountain ( 551.3 m) - extreme north-east of the center forest cellar
- Quernst (approx. 545 m) - with ruin " Quernstkirche " ( at 534.9 m), " Quernstkapelle " and lookout tower - Northern foothills of Talgang, southern Great Hardt
- Ermerod / Peter head ( 539.2 m / 506.6 m) - with the upper reservoir of the pumped storage Waldeck
- Homberg ( 518.5 m) - with a lookout; East of the wild Ungerberg country
Is down river dammed and a few kilometers to the Affolderner Lake - the largest lake in Hesse - At Northwest and the northern edge of the Forest cellar Eder, which flows to Lake Eder. The remaining rivers and streams of the basement woodland belong mostly to the river system of the Eder and thus to the Weser. These include, on the western edge of the mountains Lengelbach and Lorfebach, on the northern flank Banfebach and on the eastern flank ( from north to south ) Wesebach, Wilde, Urff and Gilsa, the latter two rivers flow into the east the basement Forest passing Eder inflow Schwalm. An exception is the flowing springing about in the southwest of Keller Forest and south Wohra, which opens into the Lahn- inflow ohms and thus belongs to the river system of the Rhine.