Kholm, Kholmsky District, Novgorod Oblast
Chelm (Russian Холм ) is a small town in the Novgorod Oblast (Russia) with 3830 inhabitants (as of October 14, 2010 ).
The city is located about 200 km south of Veliky Novgorod Oblasthauptstadt at the mouth of the Kunja in the Lovat, a tributary of Lake Ilmen.
Chelm is the administrative center of the homonymous Rajons.
Chelm was first mentioned in 1144 in a Novgorod chronicle as Cholmski pogost ( Kholm Cemetery). Chelm means in Russian Hill, sa coat of arms.
In the 13th and 15th centuries the town was subjected to repeated attacks by troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 16th and 17th centuries, which Poland and Sweden. In the 16th century Chelm was first mentioned as a place name, and later Cholmski Posad. On August 3, 1777 the municipal law as an administrative center of a circle ( Ujesds ) of the government of Pskov was awarded.
In the 19th century the city for the construction of river barges was known.
During World War II Chelm was taken on August 3, 1941 by the German Wehrmacht. For military historical significance reached the city because since December 1941, advancing to the west end of Red Army until May 1942 could encircle more German troops there by January first. The long and heavy losses for both sides siege ended after more than three months, with the liberation of trapped people. It was only on February 21, 1944 Troops were able to conquer the 2nd Baltic Front under the Staraya Russa - Noworschewer operation largely destroyed by the fighting city.
Two German soldiers of the " Kampfgruppe Scherer " in front of ruins, March 21, 1942
Note: Census data
Culture and sights
Surrounded by dense forests and impenetrable swamps are located approximately 20 km ( straight line ) northwest of the city on a peninsula in Lake Rdeiskoje the remains of the company founded in the second half of the 17th century Rdeiski Monastery ( Рдейский монастырь ). To date, its completed in 1902 and 1932 closed Assumption Cathedral ( Успенский собор / Uspensky Sobor ) is obtained as an overgrown by vegetation ruin.
The west of it located Rdeiski swamps since 1994 part of the 36 922 -hectare nature reserve Rdeiski - Sapowednik, that is directly west on the territory of the Pskov oblast followed by the 37 983 hectare Polistowski - Sapowednik. The raised bog system between the rivers Polist and Lovat is one of the largest in Europe. The management of the nature reserve is located in Chelm.
Nearby are the former residences of the princes Shakhovskoi from the 18th century and Bobrow 19th century.
Chelm itself has a city history museum.
In Chelm, there are some companies in the timber industry and the food industry.