Kingdom of Commagene
Commagene is an ancient landscape in the southeast of Asia Minor, which is bounded on the east by the Euphrates. To the west lies the Taurus Mountains and to the south the plains of northern Syria. For a long time Commagene part of various empires before BC was the middle of the 2nd century independent. In the first century AD, the independence ended comma gene. Their capital was only Samosata on the Euphrates, then Hierapolis Bambyke. The most important cities were Marash, Doliche and Perrhe.
In the year 866 BC the Kingdom Kummuhu under the Assyrian king Aššurnasirapli II was mentioned for the first time. The kings of Assyria were Kummuhu tribute. To 750 BC King Kuštašpi joined an alliance against Assyria. The uprising was put down in 743 BC Arpad. After a revolt of the king Mutallu in 708 BC Kummuhu was an Assyrian province under Sargon II. 605 BC Kummuhu was conquered by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II. Among the Achaemenid Empire, it became part of Eastern Armenia. Under Ptolemy Commagene 163 BC was independent of the Seleucids; the most important king was Antiochus I (69 -ca. 36 BC). After the death of Antiochus III. (17 AD) was incorporated Commagene in the Roman Empire.
In religion and culture of Commagene mix Hellenistic, indigenous Anatolian and Persian elements. Under Antiochus IV of Commagene became independent again. 74 AD However, it finally lost its independence and became part of the Roman province of Syria. In late antiquity the term Euphratesia became customary for the province, even if the name Commagene remained common. In the 7th century, the area which had previously been fought between the Romans and Sassanids long, was then conquered by the Arabs.
Significant cultural monuments are the tombs on Mount Nemrut, also the Hierothesia of Arsameia on Nymphaios and on Karakuş. From Roman times, the bridge of Septimius Severus, among other things obtained, which owns the 34- m second largest built by the Romans arch.
The excavations were conducted over 25 years by Friedrich Karl Dörner.