Kolomenskoye (Russian Коломенское ) is an ancient residence of the tsars south-east of Moscow city center, which was in the earlier centuries on the then main road to Kolomna. The picturesque surroundings of the Moskva River has been included in the municipal area in 1960.

The White Column of Kolomenskoye

The village of Kolomenskoye was first mentioned in the testament of the Moscow Grand Prince Ivan Kalita in 1336. Over time, the village became a popular country seat of the Moscow rulers. The oldest surviving building is the unique Ascension Church ( 1532) of white stone that should commemorate the long-awaited birth of the heir to the throne, the future Tsar Ivan the Terrible. As the first stone church tent-like shape characterized the "White Column " a daring break with the then prevalent in Russia Byzantine architectural tradition.

The church is based on a low cross-shaped ground floor ( podklet; Russian подклет ), followed by an extended Tschetwerik (Russian четверик = octagonal body) and then an octagonal tent, crowned by a small dome. The narrow pilasters on the sides of the Tschetwerik, the arrow-shaped window frames, the three rows of Kokoschniki, the balanced rhythm of stair arcades and open galleries underline the dynamic tendency of this masterpiece of Russian architecture. It is assumed that the vertical structure of the building and be the world's first stone tent -shaped roof has been taken over by the wooden churches of the Russian North. Taking into account their unique importance, UNESCO decided in 1994 to put the church on the list of World Heritage Sites.

The great palace and other buildings

On the other side of the gorge of Kolomenskoye is the church of John the Baptist, which is dated about the year 1547. The exact time of its completion is not known. There are opinions that their builders were Italian architects, others write the authorship of the Postnik Yakovlev, the architect of St. Basil's Cathedral on Red Square. Whatever the truth, the Church is generally understood as an intermediate step between the Church of the Resurrection and St. Basil's Cathedral with the onion-shaped domes.

The Tsar Alexis I had let demolish all previous wooden structures in Kolomenskoye and replaced it with a new great wooden palace, famed for its fanciful, fairy -like roofs. Were foreigners described the huge labyrinth of corridors and 250 rooms that use all without a single nail, hook or a saw, built as the "eighth wonder of the world ". The future Empress Elizabeth Petrovna was born in this palace in 1709. After the relocation of the court to St Petersburg, the palace fell into disrepair and increasingly also Catherine the Great refused to make their residence in Moscow. On their behalf towards the palace was demolished in 1768. By 2010, the Moscow government has the palace after the old plans reconstructed.

Among the remains of the palace complex is one of the five- domed Kazanskaya Church (1662 ) and the stone and the wooden gate. During the Soviet time old wooden buildings of the Russian North and Siberia were transported to Kolomenskoye and set up an open-air museum. Many of the works contained in it date back to the 17th century.

Wooden gate of the palace

Front gate

The reconstructed wooden palace, 2011

The reconstructed wooden palace, 2011

Wooden church of St. George