The Kolumbos (Greek Ηφαίστειο Κολούμπος ) is an underwater volcano about 7 km northeast of the Greek Cycladic island of Santorini. In running from the southwest to the northeast zone of weakness to the volcanic island of Santorini are more active and inactive volcanoes, of which the Kolumbos addition to the Christiana Islands is one of the most famous. The crater rim of the volcano Kolumbos is only 10 to 18 meters below the surface, its caldera, however, reaches a depth of up to 505 meters. The crater has a diameter of 1.5 kilometers. At the northeast end of the crater floor surface to break through the hydrothermal vents covered by a thick layer of bacteria seabed. That there flowing superheated ( up to 224 ° C were measured ), metal-containing water has been here since 1650 up to four meters high chimneys can arise from metal - sulfur compounds.
The outbreak in 1650
1649, the volcano had so far raised that he towered above the water surface. The two- month-long eruption of Kolumbos in September 1650 was for 1000 years the most powerful volcanic eruption in the eastern Mediterranean. The associated with strong earthquake eruption on Santorini taught great damage and cost more than 50 citizens life, many buildings were destroyed, the ash rain brought agriculture and animal husbandry to a halt. The collapse of the volcano in its caldera triggered a tsunami, which still caused damage on islands in 150 km.
The new volcano formed a ring of tufa, which was still above the water surface at first, but later quickly eroded. Colombo - - Since he was white in contrast to the other Santorini volcanoes that are formed from completely black lava, the new volcanic island after the Italian word for dove was called in Greek " Koloumbos ".