KÃ¶ppen climate classification
The effective climate classifications go, as opposed to the genetic classifications less on the emergence of an climates, rather than their appearance. An important starting point are the different forms of vegetation, because the same plants grow only under the same climatic conditions. The resulting climates cards have thus quite similar to the maps of vegetation zones; However, its foundations are based on more measurements than on observational data.
In order to delimit the zones in more detail and present the climate much detail as possible, are often further criteria, such as temperature and precipitation, included in the analysis.
Köppen and Geiger climate classification
These climate classifications were developed by Wladimir Köppen Peter until 1918 and continued by Rudolf Geiger from the 1930s. It is common in the world's climate geography.
- At the
The numbers indicate the order in the arrangement of the classification.
Under this system is about the European Atlantic climate type Cfb (Book Air ), but typed Dfc ( boreal coniferous forest climate) in the north, the continental influence areas as well as the Baltic region Dfb, the Mediterranean climate Csa or Csb.
- BW ( desert climate ): The numerical value of the annual precipitation ( cm) ( in vorwiegendem winter rains ) is smaller than that of the mean annual temperature ( in ° C). For example, if the annual average temperature at 20 ° C, so when winter rains then the station has a desert climate, if less than 20 cm drop (200 mm ) per year. For uniformly distributed rain must be added to the temperature 7, at the prevailing summer rainfall is 14 adds.
- Examples: Isfahan, Iran ( BWk )
- Lima, Peru ( BWn )
- Walvis Bay, Namibia ( BWn )
- Tabriz, Iran ( BSk )
- Tehran, Iran ( BSk )
- Examples: Bengbu, Anhui, China ( Cwa )
- Rasht, Gilan, Iran ( CFA )
- São Paulo, Brazil ( CFA )
- Brisbane, Queensland, Australia ( CFA ) Template: Dead link
Breakdown based on the proportion of rainfall
- W = winter dry: In the C and D climates in the rainiest month of the warmer season falls more than ten times as much precipitation as in driest month of the colder season.
- In A- climates must precipitation occur to get a Aw climate in the colder months, at least one month with less than 60 mm.
- In the C and D climates of the rainiest months of the cold season, this must have at least three times as much rainfall as the driest months of the warm season. The Mittelmeerklimate example, fall into this group (Cs).
- M = monsoon ( monsoon ):
Differentiation of the summer heat and winter cold
- Group for the C and D climates: a = temperature of the hottest months is about 22 ° C and at least 4 months warmer than 10 ° C.
- B = all months below 22 ° C, but there are at least 4 months, the C warmer than 10 °.
- C = Only 1 to 3 months are warmer than 10 ° C, the coldest month is not less than -38 ° C.
- D = Only 1 to 3 months are warmer than 10 ° C, the coldest month has an average temperature of less than -38 ° C (only for D- climates ).
- H = hot ( The annual mean temperature is about 18 ° C. )
- K = winter cold ( The annual average temperature is below 18 ° C, but the warmest month above 18 ° C. )
- K '= k as, but also the warmest month is in this climate is colder than 18 ° C.
- L = mild ( all months are between 10 ° C and 22 ° C. )
- I = isothermal ( The difference between the warmest and the coldest month is below 5 ° C. )
Updated world map of the Köppen -Geiger climate classification
Based on recent data sets of the Climatic Research Unit (CRU ) at the University of East Anglia and the World Centre for Precipitation Climatology ( GPCC ) at the German Weather Service, a new digital Köppen -Geiger world map for the second half of the 20th century was created.
All maps use the > 0 ° C definition for temperate climates
Köppen map of America
Köppen map of Asia
Köppen map of Australia and Oceania
Köppen map of Brazil
Köppen map of Europe
Köppen map of North America
Köppen map of South Asia
Köppen map of Russia
Köppen map of South America
Köppen map of West Asia
Australia, climates over 30 years ( 1961-1990).
Climate classification troll and puffing
Another scheme uses the joint work of Carl Troll and Karlheinz puffing. This system is particularly in ecology, and their applications used in agriculture and forestry.
Basis, the distinction of the ground in five Zonenklimate, but these are not defined independently, but rather indirectly via the associated air- types. The system is based on the seasonal variation of climatic main elements and to the relationships between climate and natural vegetation ( vegetation zones and growth areas, phenology, etc.).
The division into Zonenklimate is as follows:
The classification is based on the observation of seasonal changes of climate elements (radiation, temperature, precipitation ), the occurrence of vegetation in different climatic zones also finds strong consideration. Höhenklimate be represented as variants of postural Zonenklimate ( eg, Zone I in high mountain regions of lower latitudes ).
The classification is very detailed. It uses thresholds and fixed ranges of values for certain parameters to allow a further subdivision of the five major climate zones. These parameters are the mean temperature of the warmest month, the average temperature of the coldest month, the annual amplitude of the temperature, the vegetation period in days and the number of humid months (precipitation / humidity range ).
Example: An Oceanic by Trolls classification Borealklimat must provide a vegetation period of 120 to 180 days, the mean temperature of the warmest month must be between 10 and 15 degrees Celsius and the average temperature of the coldest month between -3 and 2 degrees Celsius.
USDA Hardiness Zones
The U.S. Department of Agriculture ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, USDA ) developed a climate classification, the USDA Plant Hardiness Zones (, hardiness zones '), the areas classified only on the basis of the average annual coldest temperature. It is quite finely divided with 11 zones and several subzones, and is used primarily to determine the northern limit of distribution of plants.