Kosala ( Sanskrit: कोशल, Kosala ) was a North Indian kingdom in the Gangetic Plain at the time of the historical Buddha Gotama ( 500 BC ). It was one of 16 major tribal shrines (called Mahajanapadas ) and was in the north of present-day Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. After a series of grueling war it was finally annexed in 450 BC from the neighboring state of Magadha.

The capital of Kosala was Sravasti ( Savatthi also called ). Another important places was Saketa (also Ayojjha ). At the time of the Buddha, the Kingdom of Mahakosala, Pasenadi and Viḍūḍabha was ruled.