Kru languages

The Kru languages ​​are a subgroup of the North Volta -Congo branch of the Niger - Congo languages ​​. The 30 - Kru languages ​​are in the Ivory Coast and in Southern Liberia spoken by about 2.5 million people. The name Kru is obviously a corruption of the language name Klao, favored by English crew, since the Kru people often previously worked as sailors on European ships.

Position of the Kru within the Volta - Congo

Westermann ( 1927) and Greenberg (1963 ) calculated the Kru languages ​​of the Kwa languages, Bennet and Sterk (1977 ), it relocated in the North Volta -Congo branch. The alternative plan is an independent position within the Volta - Congo, that is pari passu with the North and South Volta - Congo; this question is not yet fully understood. Marchese (1989 ) added the three isolated languages ​​Aizi, Kuwaa and Seme add the Krusprachen.

Classification of Kru languages

The Kru languages ​​are divided into an eastern and a western branch and three isolated languages. All Kru languages ​​are listed in the following classification, the classification follows Williamson Blench 2000.

Classification of Kru languages

  • Kru Eastern Kru Bakwe - Wane: Bake (10 thousand), Wane (2 thousand)
  • Beet East: Gagnoa Pray (150 thousand), Kouya (10 thousand)
  • West: Daloa Pray (130 thousand), Guibéroua Pray (130 thousand), Godie (25 thousand)
  • Bassa: Bassa (350 thousand), Dewoin (8 thousand), Gibi (6 thousand)
  • Grebo: Grebo (230 thousand), Crumbs (50 thousand), glio - Oubi (6 thousand)
  • Klao: Klao ( " Kru " ) (200 thousand), Tajuosohn (10 thousand)
  • Guere Guere - Krahn: Guere (Wee ) (320 thousand), Krahn (60 thousand), Sapo (30 thousand), Daho -Doo (4 thousand), Glaro - Twabo (4 thousand)
  • Konobo: Konobo (Eastern Krahn ) (50 thousand)
  • Nyabwa: Nyabwa (45 thousand)
  • Wobe: Wobe ( North Guere ) (160 thousand)

The Kru languages ​​of the two main branches are all very similar, differing most is the Seme spoken in Burkina Faso.

Linguistic characteristics

Noun class system of Proto - Niger - Congo are hardly obtained in the Kru, the plural is formed by suffixes and change the Auslautvokals. In the noun phrases there is concordance structures. The Kru languages ​​make heavy use of verbal extensions, such as the formation of causatives, Benefaktiven, inchoative and passive. The personal pronouns differ in some languages, feminine and masculine in the 2nd and 3rd person singular, otherwise there is no gender differentiation. The word order is SVO, there are postpositions used. While the genitive attribute and the possessive in front of the given noun, adjective attribute demonstrative and numeral are placed after the noun.