Kutuzovo, Krasnoznamensky District, Kaliningrad Oblast
Kutusowo (Russian Кутузово, Schirwindt German, Lithuanian Širvinta, Polish Szyrwinta ) is a village in the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast Raion in Krasnoznamensk in the rural community Dobrowolsk ( Pillkallen ).
Schirwindt is in the East of Kaliningrad region directly on the border with Lithuania on the river Schirwindt ( lit. " skirvinti ": crawl ), a tributary of the Scheschupe ( lit. " SEZE Upis " dark river), which forms the border to Lithuania here. Opposite is the Lithuanian town Kudirkos Naumiestis. The nearest town in Kaliningrad Oblast is approximately 25 kilometers south west Nesterov ( Stallupönen ).
From 1725 to 1945 owned the former Schirwindt that belonged since 1818 to the circle Pillkallen (1938-1945 district Schlossberg ) in the district of the Prussian province of East Prussia Gumbinnen, town rights and was the easternmost city of the German Empire since 1871. With just a little more than 1,000 inhabitants, it was also the smallest town in the province. Her trademark was the middle of the 19th century, built after plans by Friedrich August Stiller twin- Immanuel Church.
Was Schirwindt by the narrow-gauge light railway on Pillkaller Grumbkowkeiten (1928-1945 Grumkowsfelde, Russian: Prawdino ) with the county town of Pillkallen (1938-1945 Schlossberg, Russian: Dobrowolsk ) connected. The border crossing was mainly regional importance.
As a border town Schirwindt quickly fell in August 1914 between the fronts and was - as well as the neighboring town of Lithuanian Kudirkos Naumiestis / Wladyslawow - heavily damaged. The reconstruction of Schirwindt with the help of Bremen was quickly carried out under the architect Kurt Frick. Because of its remoteness but the city grew only slightly in subsequent years. The Second World War brought the complete destruction of Schirwindt. Already in October 1944 Schirwindt was captured the first German city by the Red Army, the first time reached the German Reich here. Unlike Pillkallen and Goldap Schirwindt was not again re-conquered by the Wehrmacht.
After incorporation into the Soviet Union, the place lost its city rights in 1947 got the name Kutusowo after the Russian General Kutuzov and was incorporated as a village in the village Soviet Pobedino ( Schillehnen ). Later, the city also lost its status as a settlement and was only a military post. Since 1997 Kutusowo once again has the status of a settlement, first in the village district Dobrowolsk and since 2008 /09 in the rural community Dobrowolsk. Permanent residents, the place currently but not as a reconstruction of the village did not take place until today. Only a part of the old school still stands and is now used as barracks for the border guards. From the church is still the foundation to recognize.
The first construction of a church in Schirwindt was completed in 1582. 1640 burned down the house of God and was from 1694 to 1710 as a renewed thatched building and in 1737 supplemented by a small tower. This church was already in disrepair at the beginning of the 19th century.
Located opposite Schirwindt Lithuanian town Kudirkos Naumiestis (New Town ) had a magnificent Baroque church. The wanted the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV, who traveled often on his way to Saint Petersburg by Schirwindt, facing a counterpoint. He, therefore, set up in 1846 and 1848 according to plans by Friedrich August Stiller instead of the little impressive old church on the market, a 60 meters high, twin-towered Neo-Gothic building of red brick. In the city chronicle is the following entry found: " In memory of my stay in this city, I have approved the construction of the damaged church and me will be very pleased once completed at the same visit. Schirwindt, early 8 clock, 8 June 1845. Friedrich Wilhelm ".
The church was consecrated in 1856 and contributed to the king's request the name " Immanuel Church." She remained in 1914 largely undamaged. 1944 but stopped after heavy fighting only the foundations. On the base level of the pulpit was erected a wooden cross in memory of the former house of worship.
Before 1945, a predominantly Protestant population lived in Schirwindt. The parish, which (in Russian today: Neman ) earlier in the inspection Ragnit was incorporated, was until 1945 the church circle Pillkallen ( 1938-1946 Schlossberg, today Russian: Dobrowolsk ) in the ecclesiastical province of East Prussia the Church of the Old Prussian Union.
Today the nearest evangelical church is in Babuschkino ( United Degesen ) in the Kaliningrad provost of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of European Russia ( ELCER ). The parish office is that of the Salzburg church in Gusev.
Since the Reformation, held office until the expulsion of 1945, 25 pastors in Schirwindt:
- NN, since 1549
- Thomas Gettkandt, 1563/1566
- Johann Höpner, 1572-1581
- Johann Gettkandt until 1592
- Johann charge man in 1623
- Jacob Seidler
- Johann Sperber, to 1666
- Daniel Renn, 1666
- Johann Schultz, 1669-1724
- Caspar Langowski, 1724-1728
- Erhard Wolff, 1729-1731
- Georg Lisiewski, 1731-1734
- Gerhard L. mill battle, 1734-1736
- Jacob Friedrich Naugardt, 1731-1751
- Ephraim Frederick Messner, 1752-1807
- Johann Samuel Müller, 1804-1817
- Christian Wilhelm Trosien, 1817-1832
- Johann Wilh. Friedr. Kisewetter, 1832-1853
- August Eduard Mertineit, 1853-1858
- Leopold Otto Loebel, 1858-1883
- Hermann Wilhelm Moritz Lau, 1883-1885
- Theodore Alfred Dyer, 1886-1926
- Gerhard Ruhmland, 1926-1932
- John Henschel, 1933-1940
- Horst Sturm, 1942-1943
- Ottomar Cludius (1850-1910), philologist
- Arthur milk Höfer (1852-1903), archaeologist