Lago di Lei
The Lago di Lei is an 8 km long reservoir, which (as the Lago di Livigno ) lies almost entirely in Italy. Only the 141 m high dam and the 950 m long access tunnel located in Switzerland, in an exclave of the municipality Ferrera above the Alp Campsut.
The valley is called Valle di Lei and is from the Reno di Lei (literally Lei -Rhine, Germanized formerly Leibach ) flows through.
- 3.3.1 Architectural History
- 3.3.2 Operating History
The maximum water level is at 1931 m above sea level. M. and Tiefstwasserstand at 1830 m above sea level. M.
The facilities include power plants Behind Rhein AG, which drives a power plant with 185 MW capacity with the stored water in Ferrera. The water flows from there into the lake of Sufers.
Apart from taleigenen precipitation of the lake with the help of mirror tunnel is supplied with water from the neighboring valleys Val Madris and 9 km away from the Averstal.
The waters of the Lago di Lei and Reno di Lei is the only water of Italy, which crossed the Rhine into Lake Constance and continues to flow into the North Sea, similar to the waters of the Lago di Livigno, which is also not the Mediterranean, but in the Inn or the Danube and ultimately flows into the Black Sea.
From the north, was the high Val di Lei before 1957 by the Swiss side, a tunnel was built, very difficult to access: the valley is closed at the bottom against Innerferrera where the Reno di Lei opens into the Avers Rhine through a gorge so that the valley from the north on foot only over the steep and narrow detour through the Val digl Uors ( lit. bear) was reached.
On the other hand, the valley was used early on by Italy in the south, over the Passo di Lei and the Passo di Angeloga to Alpsömmerung.
Exchange between Italy and Switzerland
Was first mentioned in the valley as Val de Leylo in 1355th At that time, the valley was temporarily inhabited throughout the year by settlers from the south.
In 1462 the Counts of Berg sold in the course of their decline the valley of the valley's community Piuro (German outdated Plurs ).
By Mailänderkriege the entire valley of Chiavenna and thus Piuro and the Val di Lei in 1512 fell to the Three Leagues. Since the Three Leagues were in turn in 1497 as Eternal Mitverbündete or place facing the Old Confederation, the Val di Lei belonged from 1512 to 1797 ie for Switzerland.
During this time, namely in the 17th century, the valley was used not only for the Alpine economy, but also for ore mining.
Transition to Italy
Since the founding of the Cisalpine Republic and the associated boundaries in Bergell of 1797, the Val di Lei belongs together with Piuro officially Italy. The Congress of Vienna confirmed to be this loss of federal commons rule Chiavenna in Italy, but if Chiavenna and the main territory of Piuro on the 1858 published Journal XIX of the Dufour map were no longer marked as Swiss territory, the Val di Lei remained as part Switzerland's mapped. Only the contract Convenzione tra l' Italia e la Svizzera per l' accertamento della frontiera fra la Lombardia ed il Cantone dei Grigioni of 1863 clarified the membership Italy final.
With the construction of the dam Valle di Lei was started in 1957. The configuration of the dam had engineer Claudio Marcello. The construction management was at the Milan Edison company, today Mitaktionärin the power plants Rhine. Up to 1500 people worked on the site. About ten workers were killed during construction, their names have been noted in a small chapel on the Italian territory. First, we created two cable cars Campodolcino over the Passo di Angeloga to transport materials and workers. Then the access road tunnel was created. Specifically for the construction of the wall two quarries were built.
The dam was completed in 1962. Then a boundary correction was carried out: The area around the dam was ceded by Italy to the Swiss canton of Grisons, while the slightly more northerly Alpe Motta joined the Italian territory. From the cable cars today only ruins are present. Since the dismantling of the cable cars, there is a transport connection in the valley only on Swiss territory.
Through the filling of the reservoir in 1963 15 Alps were flooded along with the Valley, European Alps as Erebella, S. Anna (chapel of the valley ), palazzetto, Caurga, Mulacetto and Corbia di Sopra. What remains the Alpe Mottala, Alpe Pian del Nido and Alpe Scalotta in the valley and the Alpe del Crot and the Alpe Motta are north of the dam. The Alpe della Palu (formerly Alp la Palu ) was the end of the mural crown laid from the lake bottom to the left ( west ) high.
For auditing purposes, the reservoir was completely drained in the fall of 2012. After revision was the dam installations and the pressure shaft replenishment in spring 2013 was initiated. It is expected to last until 2017. The crew program for fish is expected to last until 2018.