One of the most water-rich and deepest lakes in Germany, monomictic
The Starnberger See ( until 1962: Würmsee ) is a lake in Bavaria, 25 kilometers southwest of Munich. The lake is Lake Constance, Lake Müritz, the Chiemsee and the Schwerin Lake is the fifth largest lake in Germany, due to its large average depth, however, the second richest in water. The area of Lake Starnberg is an unincorporated community in the district of Starnberg. The lake is owned by the Free State of Bavaria, for the management of which is the Bavarian Administration State-owned Palaces, Gardens and Lakes in charge.
Become known beyond Bavaria is the lake by the scandalous death of King Ludwig II in 1886 by drowning. This event is still remembered by a votive chapel and a wooden cross in the lake near the accident site in the mountain.
Since 1976, the Lake Starnberg is one protected by the Ramsar Convention on wetlands of international importance.
The following municipalities also share lakeside ( clockwise from the north):
Before the western shore, south of Possenhofen is a small island, the Island of Roses.
The earliest mentions of the name Würmsees as Uuirmseo can be found in a document of 818, which refers to Holzhausen am Würmsee. Later it was Wirmsee so at an early source from the time of Emperor Ludwig of Bavaria ( 1314-1347 ). The name derives from the River WIRM (now Würm ) flowing the only flow from the lake at Starnberg. In the 19th century, the spelling of the two bodies of water then walked to Würm and Würmsee. Only since 1962, the lake is officially called Starnberger See, this term began from the end of the 19th century more and more enforced as of the sea by the construction of a railway line from the former " Starnberger wing station " in Munich Central Station to Starnberg for a large number was reached by city dwellers as a destination. The Starnberger See also bears the nickname Fürstensee.
The lake basin was ejected during the ice ages by the Isar- Loisach Glacier. During the last Ice Age, the, the glacier from the south reached to the northern end of the lake, so that there the lake basin was carved out in its present form. Important for the conservation of the lake basin was the fact that the re-melting of the glacier, the vast majority of meltwater followed today rivers of Loisach and Isar, so that the area of Lake Starnberg was hardly spilled. At the end of the last Ice Age, the last running meltwater formed the Würmtal, the northernmost part of the lake basin silted up since then and today forms the Leutstettener moss. Were formed at the edges of the glacier tongue side and end moraines between the basin of Lake Starnberg and Ammersee in the basin of the second main point made in the south of the Eberfinger Drumlinfeld and then north of the Andechs ridge. On the side and end moraines are numerous vantage points such as the Ilkahöhe in Tutzing or the Bismarck tower at Assenhausen.
Because of its size, the lake cools down only slowly and heats up just as slowly, so he mixed himself as Lake Constance only once a year in spring, is called such types of lakes as monomictic. He has no alpine supply, which is amazing, but can be explained by the altitude, given its geographical location, and is fed by only several rather smaller surface area streams and a few underground springs. Its drainage basin has an area of 314 square kilometers.
The largest amounts of water received by the Lake Starnberg on the Ostersee - Oh in the south, in the 500 meters in front of the mouth nor the bottom stream flows. 500 meters to the east flows the Singer Bach. In the north, open the George Bach ( Bach Maisinger, 450 meters west of the Würm outflow ) and the Lüßbach (170 meters east of the Würm outflow ) a. On the west bank of the Rötlbach is (south of Tutzing, opening into the carp angle) of the most significant tributary. Other tributaries in the West Starz Bach ( at Pöcking ) Martelsgraben ( Kalkgraben ) in Tutzing and Seeseitenbach (1500 meters north of Lake Main). In the east open boundary ditch ( in Ambach ) and calibration ditch and road ditch to the south. Other minor tributaries are mostly unnamed.
The small tributaries is also low compared to the outflow of the Würm by the Leutstettener moss and the Mill Valley. Because of the few tributaries, it takes about 21 years for the lake to exchange its water once, and it shows with its small catchment area of approximately 315 square kilometers only minor level fluctuations. While the strong alpine tributaries, for example, on the adjacent Ammersee or Chiemsee the water level can vary by up to three meters, the variation is located on Lake Starnberg with a maximum of 1.3 meters significantly lower. The highest measured lake level occurred in August 2010 as a result of numerous precipitation events with 585.03 m above sea level. NN on. At Pentecost 1999 last had a several-day continuous rain with a daily precipitation as statistically less than once appears in a hundred years, the level in just 36 hours by 40 centimeters to 584.96 m above sea level. Let rise NN, while about 14 million cubic meters of water have been saved. The lake is to withhold as " unregulated memory " capable of great masses of water, and thus preserves the Würmtal communities from extreme flooding. The slow water exchange of the currently mesotrophic lake makes it on the other hand especially vulnerable to stress.
Since the 1960s, the waste water from the neighboring communities are kept on ring canals from the lake, so that the nutrient load and water quality has improved significantly in the long-term trend. Today, the lake is one of the five cleanest larger lakes in Bavaria, he has a high transparency and low algae development.
As old as the history of settlement of the sea area, about 3,000 years old, is also the history of fishing in and around the Lake Starnberg. In one of the oldest settlement sites of the area, on Rose Island, a bronze fish hook was discovered during archaeological excavations. Also at the Rose Island to barg in 1989 a dugout from the 8th or 9th century BC. Fishing and net fishing in private and commercially operated both as a sport such as food acquisition are on Lake Starnberg today. The best fishing grounds are to the submarine ridges and mountains. Most local fishermen have a long family tradition with their profession. They often still live in the historic farms along the shore, carrying the traditional guild signs with the year of admission to the guild in some cases.
While the earlier settlers were able to fish freely as needed, could operate from about 1000 AD, the fishery by serfs against charges the Bavarian noble houses. Later, the Bavarian Dukes were the fishing rights from land lords or monasteries. The fish of the Bavarian lakes were the preferred food in the better houses next game. Least had the fishermen themselves of this system in which they do not always fed her hard and sometimes dangerous work well.
Accessible was the subdivision of the fish in "noble ", " lower " and "last fish factory ". Whitefish, lake trout and lake trout were considered nobler species, bream, pike, carp, catfish and Rutte than lower. Whitefish and pike were estimated for a long time as " fish bread " of the lake, because of their frequent occurrence, they were a common staple food. The stock of pike was decimated in the late 18th century by a Hechtpest such that he could not regenerate until today. Char were considered a delicacy so popular that fishing books have been introduced.
On the waterfront in Starnberg, in the background the Zugspitze
The eastern shore of the lake, from the ship
Rose Island from the ferry
Wooden cross in the shallow water at the shore mountain to commemorate the death of King Ludwig II
Recreation and Sports
The lake is an important recreational area is, especially for Munich, as it is easily reached by S -Bahn to Tutzing, of the railway to the main lake or on the A 95 / A 952.
For walkers and cyclists there are around a 46.2 km long circuit around the lake that runs with brief exceptions off the streets. About 20 kilometers to the lake shore are publicly available.
Between Niederpöcking and Possenhofen there is the Paradise bathing place, the recreation area of the city of Munich, with lawns, jetties, BBQ areas, volleyball court and a beach area for windsurfers. Large bathing meadows are also available in Kempfenhausen and between Ambach and St. Henry. Outdoor swimming pools are available in Starnberg, Feldafing, Garatshausen, Bern Ried and main lake ( Lido). A number of sailing and surfing schools are included, and boat rentals.
The Bavarian Lakes shipping offers lines, round and special trips. With the MS imagination you can Starnberg directly to the museum of the imagination, better known as Buchheim Museum, drive in Bern Ried, which has become a major attraction.
Sailing is a popular sport, even if the Starnberger lake is considered low wind area with occasional fast gathering thunderstorms. Sailing is theoretically possible without a license, however, require all boat hire and most sailing clubs at least an A - certificate.
Sailing Boats shorter than 9.20 m and without motor can be used in the context of the common use without permission, the local rules are to be observed (eg, distance to shore, protected areas, priority of passenger ships ). Public inlet ramps are available in Tutzing and Ammer country (excluding parking ) as well as in a recreation area in Ambach.
Engine and electric boats as well as sail boats with more than 9.20 m in length or with an auxiliary motor with four kilowatts or with living, cooking or sanitary facilities require approval of the district office Starnberg and a flag and a private law concession agreement with the Bavarian Palace Department. Analogously, the same is true for berths buoys or webs.
For motor boat licenses on Lake Starnberg there is a fixed quota of licenses 255 private and Memp with a waiting period of about 13 years.
Water skiing is possible on a given area in the lake at certain times of day.
Diving is permitted in Lake Starnberg under the provisions of the general order of the district office Starnberg.