Land-grant University

As a land-grant Universities State universities are referred to in the United States whose founding or funding to two in 1862 and 1890 and adopted as Morrill Land- Grant Colleges Act designated laws based. Named after its initiator, these laws were Justin Smith Morrill, who served as a member of the House of Representatives and from 1867 to 1898 of the Senate from 1855 to 1867. On the basis of the Morrill Land- Grant Colleges Act American states by the federal government was land transferred under the proviso to use the income from the sale or use of this land for the construction and running costs of higher education.

The curriculum focuses on these colleges should be in accordance with the provisions of the Law on the agricultural economy as well as the engineering and military science. Objective of setting up these universities was mainly the support of industrialization in the United States by a massive training of specialists, the expansion of higher education over the classical natural sciences and the humanities addition to subjects related to practical issues as well as expand access of broad social layers to higher education.

Historical development

While some states have contributed to the results from the Morrill Land- Grant Colleges Acts educational mission and the related financial resources to existing universities, it came to starting up appropriate institutions in most states. From these developed in many cases full universities whose courses offered in the presence of the original intention goes far. Currently exists in every state at least one university with the status of a land-grant University. Since the 1890 adopted second Morrill Land- Grant Act contained the condition to ensure the use of appropriate means either unrestricted access for students of African-American origin to the respective universities or build for these students additional universities, emerged from 1890 in particular further in the southern states universities. For this reason there are nowadays in most Southern states two universities, which have their origin as a land-grant University and of which usually one is counted among the historic African- American colleges and universities. A total of 69 universities were founded, including Cornell University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Wisconsin- Madison, the University of North Dakota, the University of South Dakota, the University of Michigan, the University of Minnesota, the University of Missouri, the University of Illinois and the University of Arkansas. Of these 69 universities were among 16 to the Historical Black Colleges and Universities ( HBCUs ). The first on the basis of the Morrill Land- Grant Acts of 1862 newly founded university was formed in 1863 as the Kansas State Agricultural College today Kansas State University.

The after Morrill Act of 1862 established land- grant colleges were ' cow college ' ridiculed by the other as long. They were equipped with only the most necessary and often badly run and it lacked professors who could teach in agriculture. In Cornell, Ithaca, NY and Michigan, as well as Illinois, Massachusetts, Kansas, Indiana and Iowa, there were dedicated men who performed exemplary work and their students were soon everywhere in demand as a teacher.

The second Morrill Act of 1890 provided the colleges with an annual $ 25,000 -. To get this money, the State had to prove that race or color, no entry criterion was or prove that they built separate colleges for African- Americans. This Act created 17 colleges that were known as the " 1890 land- grants".

As the oldest land-grant University applies the existing since 1766 Rutgers University, the 1864 have been delegated the appropriate tasks and allocations from the state of New Jersey.

In the named after William Henry Hatch and Hatch Act, adopted in March 1887 additional federal subsidies for those states were provided, establish an agricultural experiment station in cooperation with their land - grant colleges. These Agricultural Experiment Stations were under the Ministry of Agriculture of the United States and had the task of conducting research on agricultural crops and livestock. This included soil analysis, fertilization, study of methods of cultivation, the benefits of crop rotation, help with diseases of plants and animals, research into animal feed and other aspects. Through annual reports to the office of experimental stations, the findings were published by the Ministry of Agriculture. 1914 was passed by the U.S. Congress of the Smith - Lever Act, by which the agricultural colleges and universities in addition to teaching and research were given as the third task, the so-called extension. The institutions should now help to ensure that their knowledge gained from the training, agriculture and home economics also reached the people who could not study for different reasons. The dissemination of information was carried out by special trainers all over the country.

With the so-called " Nelson Act" of 4 March 1907 Amendment to the Morrill - laws of 1862 and 1890, was ratified, the government grants to $ 50,000 - increased per year. However, you could not be accumulated and transferred only upon application to the next year.

Impact to date

The University of the District of Columbia was awarded in 1967 with a payment of 7.24 million U.S. dollars instead of a land transfer to the status of a land-grant University. The American foreign territories Guam, Micronesia, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands and the Virgin Islands were in 1972 three million U.S. dollars to the establishment or expansion of relevant educational institutions. In 1994, 29 universities which have their headquarters in or near Indian reservations and traditionally mainly of higher education Native American was used, given the status of a land-grant University. The names of some of the land-grant universities scoring universities such as Texas A & M University and Florida A & M University, recalls the abbreviation " A & M" for Agricultural and Mechanical at the historical background, as well as the designation Aggies for the students, the alumni or the sports teams of a number of universities. Almost all universities with the status of a land-grant University are members of the umbrella organization Association of Public and Land -grant Universities. Its status as a land-grant University is up to the present, for example, the funding of research projects of importance.