Landscape planning is the application of an instrument, which focuses on the people and their needs are and proposals for sustainable development of nature and landscape are made. It is located in the tension between urban and regional planning as well as environmental and economic interests.
Landscape planning is preventive oriented and follows a holistic, comprehensive approach to the protection, maintenance, development and the extent necessary to restore nature and landscape. It refers not only to " landscape " in the colloquial sense ( free landscape ), but also binds landscape elements such as villages, settlements, towns, roads and industrial areas in the development work with a. Adjacent areas of expertise include, inter alia, Regional Geography and Regional Planning.
- 2.1 Participation in the development planning
- 2.2 Instruments of landscape planning
Landscape planning has the task to the conservation laws of the State ( Federal Nature Conservation Act Federal Nature Conservation Act ) and the Länder ( provincial nature conservation laws) to concretize in Germany stated objectives and principles of nature conservation and landscape management for the country ( Country Program ). Likewise, this is done for regions or counties ( landscape framework plan ), for the respective community ( landscape plan ) and in some states also for parts of municipalities ( urban green space plan).
The tasks of landscape planning are regulated by § 13 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act 2002:
" ( 1) Landscape planning has the task of representing the needs and measures of nature conservation and landscape management for each planning area and justified. It is used to achieve the objectives and principles of nature conservation and landscape management in the planning and management process, whose decisions have an impact on nature and landscape in the planning area. (2 ) The countries legislate on landscape planning and the procedure to be followed in accordance with § § 13 to 17 "
The Federal Nature Conservation Act provides the framework for the countries that regulate as well as the other requirements of nature conservation and landscape planning in their national laws on nature conservation. Other laws (such as the Building Code Building Code ) may also regulate certain aspects of landscape planning.
In Austria there is no explicit legal protection of landscape planning. The interests of Landscape Planning covered by the scope of countries, an official assignment and financial security is not specified.
In essence, the legal framework of landscape planning is set out in five legal texts. This first of the environmental law -making, in the first two sections ( § § 1 and 2) statements are made regarding the competence and goals. Furthermore, the Regional Planning Act, Conservation Act and National Park Act specify the legal basis for landscape planning.
About the state laws are the Umweltveträglichkeitsprüfungsgesetz, which is being developed by the federal government, as well as worked out by the European Union directives.
The landscape planning in Switzerland is responsibility of the cantons and four (environmental and spatial planning) is described in the section of the Federal Constitution. The federal government creates the conditions in this case, all other actions go by the cantons of. The nature and environmental protection in Switzerland itself is a federal matter, the implementation is based on a so-called law enforcement duty of the cantons.
Similarly as in Austria and Germany, there are also in Switzerland (environmental EIA) and corresponding regulations in addition (eg Regulation on Environmental Impact Assessment Template: § § / Maintenance / ch).
Tasks and contents of landscape planning
The law formulated behalf of the landscape design is to represent the interests of nature and landscape. The purpose of this ecological- design planning discipline is to, in essence, objectives and measures of nature conservation and recreation provision in an area comprehensively develop and display in text and maps.
Landscape planning should contribute, as livelihood of the people to maintain the performance of the ecosystem, and produce ( in case of damage ) again and to secure the long term. Here, the subspaces of an area should also be able to develop economically. The landscape design comes in addition to their original function of nature conservation, more and more the role, if possible ecologically sound shape this economic development.
The different environmental media are To capture the complexity of the ecosystem sufficiently in analysis and planning based on it differentiated into the following protected resources:
- Air, noise, and ( local ) climate
- Flora, fauna and habitats
- Landscape and outdoor recreation.
Participation in the development planning
Compared to (or within) different overall planning, such as land use planning, landscape planning is also damage to the natural environment ( " interventions ") must turn with the help of the impact regulation. The impact regulation has ' offsetting unavoidable impairments primarily or compensate " ( Federal Nature Conservation Act ) to the destination. The main legal basis for landscape planning in Germany, the Federal Nature Conservation Act, the conservation laws of the countries and the Building Code ( Building Code ).
Landscape planning is part of the target in Germany integrative spatial ( related to an area ) planning. This spatial planning is to ensure the orderly development of an area. In all subspaces of a beplanten area, the living conditions of the people, the natural resources and the economic, infrastructural conditions should be equivalent thereto.
Instruments of landscape planning
The regulatory landscape planning is handled differently in different countries of the Federal Republic and Austria as well as in the cantons of Switzerland because of state laws. These country-specific legal basis it is operated by different government institutions ( legally implemented ). Accordingly, tasks, standards and the respective statement depth of the plan works may vary. Basically, the landscape planning involved (eg the spatial plans, area development plans or land use plans of the various planning authorities ) is always in the planning of other planning levels and planning categories.
In North Rhine -Westphalia, for example, landscape planning is an object of the independent cities and ( rural) districts. A North Rhine-Westphalian landscape plan gradually flows in an urban or in a county statute, ie the plan will be decided by the respective independent city or the respective district council advice. In several other states but has eg a landscape plan as a recommendation and is therefore not legally binding towards everyone. He is only binding authorities; that is, the contents of the plan work must be observed by all public planning bodies.
In the Federal Republic of Germany Landscape Planning takes place at several levels, where it is partially juxtaposed as technical planning of regional planning, but can also refer to individual protected areas. For certain plans that an intervention in nature and landscape cause like the construction of roads, the extraction of raw materials ( quarries, gravel pits ), the construction of wind turbines, leisure and tourism facilities and other accompanying ecological planning (mostly in the form of landscape conservation and accompanying schedules ) is required.
In order to work as a landscape designer, studying at a university or a college is required. The study of landscape planning is very different from that of most other academic subjects is different. There is a maximum interdisciplinary, next to science (especially environmental), there are artistic and creative, social science, humanities and engineering and planning scientific content. The study makes it possible to work primarily in government and in independent consultants or in nature conservation organizations in the field of nature conservation and landscape planning. Other career fields are development aid, open space planning and environmental education.
Landscape planning can be studied in Germany at a number of universities (Diploma, Bachelor, Master) and colleges. The name of the studies are not uniform. In addition to landscape planning, the term environmental planning is fairly common; in English speaking countries environmental planning is common. Despite the different names, the course contents are very similar.