Koenigsberger was born into a wealthy Jewish merchant family in the province of Posen. He attended the Friedrich- Wilhelms -Gymnasium ( Posen) and studied from 1857 to 1860 at the Friedrich- Wilhelms- University of Berlin. Karl Weierstrass coined him there prevail.
He habilitated in Berlin and in 1864 professor of mathematics at the University of Greifswald. Since 1869, at the Ruprecht -Karls- University of Heidelberg, he moved in 1875 to the TH Dresden and 1877 at the University of Vienna. In 1884, he finally went back to Heidelberg, where he spent the last 36 years of his life professor.
Koenig Berger's research focused primarily on the theory of elliptic and hyperelliptic integrals and complex differential equations, the latter in close collaboration with Lazarus Fuchs. His most important works are his monographs on elliptic and hyperelliptic integrals of 1874 and 1878 as well as his biography of Hermann von Helmholtz ( 1902/ 03).
Koenig Berger's grave is located on the so-called Professorenweg the Heidelberg hill cemetery in the (Division D). It is decorated with a black granite stele carved with Koenig Bergers life data and his wife Sophie Koenigsberger born Kappel.