Leopold, Grand Duke of Baden

Leopold of Baden ( born August 29, 1790 in Karlsruhe, † April 24, 1852 ibid ) was from 1830 until his death, Grand Duke of Baden.


He was born as the first son of the Margrave Karl Friedrich of Baden and his second wife Luise Karoline. Since the Zähringerplatz - noble family was not equal Luise Karoline Geyer of Geyer mountain, the sons from this marriage were intended not for a succession margravial house. Leopold of Baden, who bore the name of Leopold von Hochberg, after his mother Baroness von Hochberg had allowed to call, has therefore not been brought up with regard to the acquisition of the position of the Prince. In 1809 Leopold von Hochberg began the study of political science and political economics in Heidelberg, traveled to Europe and took part as a 24- year-old in the war against France, which he was promoted to Major General.

After the succession of control of the House of Baden in 1818 Margrave Karl Friedrich had been changed in favor of the children of the second marriage, Leopold von Hochberg took the rank of crown prince and married the following year, befitting the Swedish Princess Sophie Wilhelmine von Holstein -Gottorp, a great-granddaughter his father. With her and his rapidly growing family he regularly spent the summer months in Baden -Baden, where he became a by Friedrich Weinbrenner spaciously designed house was acquired in 1824 outside the city walls. Prince Leopold may be granted without further significant influence on the transformation of the small medieval town to the contemporary bathrooms and high demands sufficient " Capitale d' été ".

In 1830 he took over as the fourth Grand Duke of the country's affairs and evaluated the former residence of the Margraviate of Baden -Baden on further by the New Castle, Grand Duchess Stéphanie granted in 1843 as a widow seat, but hardly used by her eintauschte against his summer palace. Extensive expansion and renovation of the Neues Schloss ensured a comfortable accommodation of the Grand Ducal family and left Baden-Baden will be the summer residence of the Prince.


At the beginning of his reign woke Grand Duke Leopold the people have high expectations of political change, as he had appointed a new Cabinet with forward-thinking members and for Christmas 1831 issued a press law that has no equal sought in Germany. The redemption pressure could not withstand the Grand Duke Leopold in 1832. In the following years he had to deal with the growing discontent among the population, which escalated into the Baden Revolution of 1848. On 13 May 1849, the Grand Ducal family to Koblenz fled into exile. The Grand Duke applied for federal aid for the restoration of constitutional order. Mostly Prussian troops lowered their revolution. On August 18, 1849 drew the Grand Duke Leopold on the side of the Prussian Prince William back into the residence city of Karlsruhe and accepted without significant contradiction that Prussia, the responsibility for many of the 27 death sentences against members of the Baden Revolution is due, the control exercised over the country.

Last years

Had Leopold of Baden struggling even before the revolution with health problems, then this increased after his return from exile meant that he abdicated on 21 February 1852, and his son Ludwig II was Grand Duke of Baden. The business of government, however, were Leopold's second son, transferred Friedrich, who also carried the title Grand Duke since 1856.

In Baden -Baden remember the central square of the city between spa and baths and a street opposite the Festspielhaus at the regent, to whom the city owes up some.

Marriage and issue

Leopold married on July 25, 1819 Sophie Wilhelmine von Holstein -Gottorp (* May 21, 1801; † July 6, 1865 ), the daughter of the Swedish king Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden and granddaughter of Leopold's half-brother Karl Ludwig. From this marriage eight children were born:

  • Alexandrine (* December 6, 1820, † December 20, 1904 ) ∞ May 3, 1842 Duke Ernst II of Saxe -Coburg -Gotha (* June 21, 1818; † August 22, 1893 )
  • Ludwig ( born October 26, 1822 † November 16, 1822 )
  • Ludwig II (* August 15, 1824; † January 22, 1858 )
  • Frederick I of Baden ( born September 9, 1826 † September 28, 1907 )
  • Wilhelm ( * December 18, 1829, † April 27, 1897 ), Prussian general ∞ Maria Maximilianowna of Leuchtenberg
  • Karl ( born March 9, 1832 † December 3, 1906 ) ∞ May 17th, 1871 Rosalie von Beust, Countess of Rhena ( born June 10, 1845 † October 15, 1908 ), the daughter of Baron Wilhelm von Beust
  • Marie ( born November 20, 1834 † November 21, 1899 ) ∞ September 11, 1858 Prince Ernst of Leiningen (* November 9, 1830, † April 3, 1904 )
  • Cecilia (* September 20, 1839, † April 12, 1891 ) ∞ August 28, 1857 Grand Duke Michael Nikolaevich Romanov ( born October 25, 1832 † December 17, 1902 )