Leopold Mozart

Johann Georg Leopold Mozart ( * November 14, 1719 in Augsburg, † May 28 1787 in Salzburg ) was a German composer during the early classical and Viennese Classicism. Worked for most of his life and he lived with his family in the Archbishopric of Salzburg. His wife brought here their common children into the world, including Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who led the Viennese classical in its heyday.


Leopold Mozart was in Augsburg in today's Mozart Haus Augsburg as son of a bookbinder Johann Georg Mozart (1679-1736) and his second wife Anna Maria Sulzer (1696-1766) was born. He studied theology in 1737, according to other data Jus and Philosophy at Benedictine University in Salzburg, but was more interested in music. The Augsburg patrician and later mayor Jakob Wilhelm Benedict of Long coat was one of his childhood friends and fellow students. 1740 Mozart was first violinist and valet of Count and Salzburg canon Johann Baptist von Thurn und Taxis. In the following years, Leopold Mozart climbed slowly up the corporate ladder in the Salzburg court orchestra. About the Office of the Vice- Kapellmeister he never came out here. In 1743 he was taken under Prince Archbishop Leopold Anton Freiherr von Firmian (reigned 1727-1744 ) initially as fourth violinist in the court orchestra in Salzburg. 1743 his name appeared in the Christmas salt lists. From 1744 onwards, he was then registered as a member of the court orchestra in the court calendar. In the same year he also taught the Kapellhausknaben in violin playing. As of May 14, 1746 he received a monthly first five, later, eleven or twenty florins grade. In 1747 he was "Court and Cammer - composer " appointed.

In the same year he married Anna Maria Pertl, with whom he had seven children. Of the children, only two reached adulthood that were both well-known musical prodigies: Maria Anna Mozart ( nicknamed "Nannerl " ) and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.

1756 appeared as a fruit of his teaching activities of the " Treatise on the Fundamental Violin School ". In 1758 he was promoted to the Court Orchestra for the second violinist. By decree of February 28, 1763 he was finally appointed vice- Kapellmeister at a salary of 400 florins, as well as an additional wine and Brotdeputat worth 96 guilders. With the beginning of the musical career of his children Leopold repeatedly sought to longer-term travel vacation, which. Sigismund III Schrattenbach (reigned 1753-1771 ) not only approved, but were from the private Schatullgeldern financially supported. Under Hieronymus Count Colloredo (reigned 1772-1803 ) was Leopold Mozart then amplified tied to the court. The more times a carried forward request to be excused for a trip to France led with effect from September 1, 1777 even to a complete dismissal from the service of the court of father and son. For this reason, Wolfgang Mozart joined the trip to France, then with his mother, who died in Paris. By decree of September 26, 1777 and the addition " that he would be with the conductor and other bey the court music salaried people quiet and peaceful " Leopold Mozart was resumed. He remained until his death on May 28, 1787 this function.

The posterity he is mainly known as tireless promoter and educator and tour guide of his brilliant son present, although he composed music that is still played today. Besides sacred music and occasional pieces, in which he likes to " real sound effects " operated (cowbell ringing, dogs barking, post horn, and others), he wrote a considerable number of works of instrumental music: 48 symphonies, six Divertimenti, five flute concertos (four of which are lost), a concerto for trumpet and trombone concerto (actually a serenade with various solo movements for trumpet and trombone), three piano sonatas, twelve violin duets, a divertimento for flute, violin and bass, inter alia, m. In the year of birth of his son Wolfgang 1756 Leopold Mozart appeared to attempt a thorough Violin School in pressure. In the slightly revised third edition (1787 ), this successful work finally called only on violin-playing. It is still regarded as an essential source of knowledge of the music-making in the 18th century.

The relationship between father and son cooled in the period around 1781/82 decreases markedly as the son settled in Vienna and a " Webers " married; in the late letters to " Nannerl" dive Wolfgang Amadeus only without attribution as " your brother " on. Leopold Mozart disapproved of the marriage of his son with Constanze. During a visit to Vienna, he criticized the fact that Wolfgang Amadeus had become thinner, that in the apartment garments around subject that there was talk about the financial situation of Mozart and much more.

As Leopold's cause of death is " stomach hardening " documented, which may be interpreted as gastric cancer. His tomb is located on the St. Sebastian's Cemetery in Salzburg. He is not buried in this grave, but in 1787 buried in the crypt of the municipality Sebastian Cemetery.

Leopold Mozart is his name next to his son on a resultant in the Austrian House, Court and State Archives attendance list of the Masonic lodge " True Harmony " in Vienna.

See also: Mozart (Family)

Works (selection)


  • A Musical Sleigh Ride ( LMV VIII: 8)
  • Sinfonia in D " The Peasant Wedding " ( LMV VIII: 6)
  • Sinfonia di caccia in G major " Hunting Symphony" ( LMV VII: G9)
  • Cassatio ( Toy Symphony ) G major ( LMV VIII: 7)
  • Flute Concerto in G major ( LMV IX: 1)
  • Trumpet Concerto in D major ( LMV IX: 13)
  • Missa brevis in C, K. 115
  • Notebook for Wolfgang (piano)

The well-known as a children's symphony work for orchestra and toys was initially attributed to Joseph or Michael Haydn and then was extended period of time as the work of Leopold Mozart. As a composer, but is now also the Tyrolean Benedictine monk Edmund Angerer in question. Leopold Mozart's Missa brevis in C major was initially erroneously attributed to his son (KV 115).


  • Attempt a thorough Violin School, Augsburg, 1756 ( full text of the third edition )


Menuet in C major ( file? )


  • Dipped into eternity, Augsburg - the Bavarian city of Mozart. A film documentary by Bernhard Graf, BR, 2011, search for clues about Leopold Mozart and his ancestors.
  • "Mozart - the true story ," A film documentary by Bernhard Graf, Bayerischer Rundfunk, 2012 dramatized documentary about Leopold Mozart, his famous son and his ancestors