The lip at Lünen
The lip is a 220- km-long right tributary of the Rhine in North Rhine -Westphalia with a catchment area of 4888.7 km ². At the level Hamm, the lip on an average outflow of 23 m³ / s; this rises to its mouth at 45 m³ / s
The lip arises as karst spring with a bed of 0.74 m³ / s in Bad Lippspringe at the western foot of the Eggegebirge. Even within the city it flows to the one kilometer long Jordan, whose source is located a few hundred meters north of the lip source. The lip flows in a southwesterly direction to Paderborn, where it receives the waters of Beke, Pader, Alme and Thune. At the confluence of the Lippe and Paderborn in Paderborn Schloss Neuhaus Paderborn the leads about three times the amount of water in relation to the lip. A few hundred yards down the river opens out the Alme, more than five times as long with 59.1 km as the lip up to this point (11,2 km). Thus, the lip is one of the river systems, whose main line is not the roll-call Quellast, but is formed by tributaries ( hydrological main branch: Paderborn, longest flow path: Alme ).
In the district of Paderborn, sands the waters of the river was dammed to Lippesee since 1989, but around since 2005 for the purpose of restoration for the most part in the Lippeseeumflut around the lake. Skip the lip flows west through the southern part of the Westphalian Bay. Shortly after Lippstadt flows from north to Glenne one. Then she reached Lippetal and Hamm, where you will be forwarded as the largest of a series of inflows in the urban area, the Ahse through a culvert under the dates - Hamm Canal through. ( The mouth of the Ahse was moved to the building of the canal from the city center out to the east. ) In the course of the lip Werne and mountain Kamen and Lunen, where it picks up the Seseke happens and flows past Waltrop, Selm, dates, Olfen and Haltern am See. In their holders flows to another larger waters, the Stever. She then continues to flow to Marl, Dorsten, Hunxe and leads finally to the south of the Rhine near Wesel.
In parallel with the lip extends from Paderborn Lippstadt to the Boker Heath Channel, an important technical cultural monument of Westphalia. The dates - Hamm Canal accompanied the lip as a side channel on the southern shore of the eastern district Schmehausen hammer as far as dates, where he meets on the Dortmund- Ems Canal. From dates then runs, also on the southern shore parallel to the lip of the Wesel- dates channel to the Rhine. Both channels are due to their course also called lip - side channel.
The cycle path " Roman Route " leads in many parts of the lip along. In the spring of 2013 to replace the Roman Route the new "Roman -lip- route".
Roman legionary camp on the lip
At the lip passed a series of Roman military camp. These are, from the mouth upstream:
- Xanten: At the mouth of the Rhine. Exist ratio of 13/ 12 BC to 70 AD area 926 mx 650 m. Discovered around 1600.
- Holsterhausen: Exist from 11 BC to AD 9 size 900 mx 650 m. 1998 discovered.
- Holders: Exist of 7/5 BC to 16 AD area 560 mx 380 m. 1838 discovered.
- Olfen: Exist from 11 BC to 7 BC area 230 mx 250 m. 2011 discovered.
- Beckinghausen: Exist in 40 AD, surface area 185 mx 88 m. 1906 discovered.
- Oberaden: Exist from 11 BC to 7 BC area 250 mx 230 m. Discovered in 1905.
- Anreppen: Exist 4/5 AD size 750 mx 330 m. Discovered in 1968.
The history of lip navigation dates back at least to Roman times; because the Romans used the river, lat Lupia called to transport their goods with the help of small vessels.
In later times the lip navigation could not develop quite as many ship mills and sand bars as well as the tariff barriers it disabled. But when in 1815 the port of Westphalia to Prussia the lip along its entire length became Prussian, plans were implemented to navigability and shipping are performed efficiently without customs barriers. The river was extended by the construction of locks and bypass channels and was from 1826 through downwards to Lippstadt navigable. Were transported particular salt, grain, iron ore, stones and wood. The drive from Hamm to Wesel lasted four days, from Hamm to Lippstadt one day. Horses on towpaths moved upriver the barges. Weirs and sluices presented a sufficient depth of water safely. On the trip from Wesel to Lippstadt following eleven locks had to be passed:
- 01 lip lock dates
- 02 lip lock Dahl at Bork
- 03 lip lock Horst at Waltrop
- 04 lip lock Beckinghausen
- 05 lip lock Werne
- 06 lip lock Stockum
- 07 lip lock Hamm
- 08 lip lock Heessen
- 09 lip lock Uentrop
- 10 lip lock Kesseler at Lippborg
- 11 lip lock Benninghausen
For the Treidelschiffe there were ports from which today bears witness to the lip Port Wesel. In the years 1853-1856 the court secretary Hermann from Hamm attempted to establish steam navigation on the lip. In 1854 he founded, together with other investors, the "Rhine and lip drag Navigation Company ." It featured 1856 three steam tugs and six larger and nine smaller ships to travel on the lip. However, the lack of expansion of the river and the not yet mature technology of the steam tug prevented an economic operation, which is why the company disbanded in 1856 and the steamship was set on the lip. Later, the competition of the railways was opposed by an economic operation of navigation on the lip.
Only in the 20th century was resumed because of the demand for freight transport for the industry of ship traffic, but not on the lip itself, but on the specially created so-called lip - side channel which results from the dates - Hamm Canal ( 1914 ) and the Wesel- dates channel ( from 1930) composed.
Water regulation and industrial use
In Hamm, the lip of the water regulation of the West German channel network serves. At the local water transfer can be passed through a 18 meter wide weir lip water in the natural gradient in the dates - Hamm Canal. Conversely, can be supplied in dry times the lip water, which is supplied by back- pumping stations to the canal locks of the Rhine and the Ruhr. From 1897 to 1914, there was a pumping station on the canal bridge Alte Fahrt of the Dortmund- Ems Canal at Olfen, which lifted by steam lip water in the channel.
The water of the lip is also used by some power plants, including the Gersteinwerk for cooling. This increases the water temperature increases far beyond their natural limit. In hot summers power plant units are selectively turned off to prevent a further increase in the water temperature, because this would cause a hazard of living in the lip fish.
Wasserverband Upper lip in Buren, the Arnsberg district government ( environmental management, Lippstadt ) and the lip dressing in food responsible for flood protection and water maintenance.
The water of the lip can not be processed into drinking water because it more natural hand, and by the introduction of pit water from the coal industry has a significant content of chlorides.
Large areas of Lippeauen are still relatively close to nature and are partly under nature conservation, such as the nature reserve Lippeaue (SO -007) in the district of Soest, and many others.
The following graphs are sorted sorted in orographic order from below ( source ) to top ( mouth ).
The longest tributaries
The ten longest tributaries of the lip ( length 15 km) are:
The tributaries with the largest catchment area
The twelve tributaries of the lip with the largest catchment area (at least 75 km ² ) are:
The most water-rich inflows
Subsequently, the MQ - balance by the level measurements reliably determinable lip inflows (sound levels see here):
Be seen in particular that the quick succession which opens inflows Pader and Alme are the actual main rivers of the lip - upper reaches.
Table of the major tributaries
Subsequently, all tributaries of the lip with a minimum of 30 km ² catchment area as well as those with more than 10 km ² above Pader and Alme are listed below:
( Dashes inserted for a better overview and to sort downriver are in the DGKZ digits after the 278 - - lip. )
→ For global table