List of additives in cigarettes
Tobacco additives are often used in the manufacture of tobacco products, to effect change, durability and combustion behavior as well as to increase the potential for dependence. Tobacco may contain more than 10% of additives. The regulation on tobacco products shall, in Germany, which tobacco additives may be used for the individual dosage forms. However, there are tobacco products, which are produced without additives. One of the requirements, and the obligations undertaken by the signatory States of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, is the disclosure of the ingredients of cigarette tobacco as well as their emissions. ( The burning creates new - some of them very dangerous - molecular compounds ).
Already in the 1970s, was deliberately set on the dependence enhancing effect of additives and certain farming methods. By frequently over a hundred synthetic and natural substances such as ammonium salts, urea, and similar additives, nicotine is released in cigarette smoke faster and in greater quantity and more strongly absorbed during inhalation. It is shown that a much faster and stronger nicotine intake increases the addictive potential. Even mild cigarettes lead in this way to a high dependency ratio. The filter and the cigarette paper alkaline materials are also added.
Furthermore, almost all cigarettes added substances to make the tobacco friendly. These additives are used primarily with regard to new and young consumers and to facilitate an introduction to the regular cigarette consumption. Without a receipt by scientific studies that tobacco control body of the DKFZ claims ( German Cancer Research Center ) that menthol is usually blended below the taste perceptible amount of 0.03 % and the inclusion of nicotine in the lungs promotes, because the smoke is mild and the respiratory rate increased. A similar effect has the addition of sugar.
A scientific study of the Dutch RIVM ( Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu - National Institute for Public Health and the Environment ) examined two cigarette brands with significantly differing ammonium levels in tobacco (brand 1 contained 0.89 mg ammonium / g tobacco and brand 2 3.43 mg ammonium / g tobacco ), but the same nicotine content in the smoke. 51 study participants smoked one each of the cigarettes (morning and afternoon mark 1 mark 2 ). Both brands had to be smoked by an identical Zugprotokoll. The individual Zugvolumina were determined for each participant. After smoking the nicotine uptake and nicotine excretion were measured in the blood. There were no differences in nicotine intake between the two brands of cigarettes. The ammonium content in the tobacco thus has no influence on the absorption of nicotine.
Since in the cigarette brand Marlboro ammonium compounds have been added, the sale rose in the 1960s to massive, so went after other producers and other tobacco products are also manipulated. For internal papers of R. J. Reynolds show that has already been set in the 1970s specifically to the dependence enhancing effect of additives and certain farming methods. In Germany, the addition of ammonium compounds to cigarettes is forbidden according to tobacco regulation.
A variety of additives are in use by the tobacco manufacturers to improve the taste, to moisten, to preserve, for better combustion and to bind the ingredients. Freeze-dried with halogenated hydrocarbon and saturated ammonium compounds tobacco increases the volume ( puffed or expanded tobacco, " Blähtabak " ) and thus the total amount that can be produced from the unprocessed tobacco. For the same purpose the processing of so-called homogenized tobaccos sheet ( sheet tobacco ) arising under utilization otherwise unusable residues and plant constituents. By re-enrichment of virgin pulp produced therefrom with the quantity of nicotine Zigarettenfüllstoffs obtained from a limited amount of tobacco is multiplied.
Authorised substances and their effects
- Urea and soda enhance release and absorption of nicotine in the lungs, since the tobacco is more basic.
- Sugar and caramelize ammonia together to obtain a smooth taste. Sugar acts dangerous to health ( carcinogenic ) by changes in combustion.
- Menthol and cloves reduce the irritation and pain of the lung, so that the smoke can be inhaled more deeply and symptom- free.
- According to tobacco regulation, only certain connections are allowed as a humectant. Specifically, it is glycerol, propylene glycol, triethylene glycol and 1,3- butylene glycol.
- Shellac as the adhesive
- Guar gum
- Treated with acids, thin boiling starch
- Preservatives: sorbic acid (E 200), sodium sorbate, potassium sorbate (E 202) and calcium sorbate (E 203), benzoic acid ( E 210 ) and sodium benzoate ( E 211 ) of para - hydroxybenzoate ( E 214 ), para- hydroxybenzoate ( E 216 ) and their sodium compounds (E 215 and e 217 ).
Ammonium compounds such as ammonium chloride are approved in Germany for chewing tobacco - not for smoking tobacco.
Forbidden olfactory and flavorings
A number of substances must not be added to tobacco products. In addition to various tar oils and camphor, camphor oil, coumarin, safrole and thujone is prohibited. In addition, various plants and plant parts is prohibited, such as Bittersüßstängel and woodruff.