List of political parties in Portugal
This list contains the most important political parties in Portugal 's history and the present. The political landscape of Portugal was repeatedly characterized by a high degree of fragmentation of the party system. Therefore, only the main parties are called.
- The absolutists ( " absolutely istas "). They argued for an absolutist monarchy and were therefore against any constitutional
- The Liberals, even constitutionalists ( " constitutionalistas " ) called, who advocated a constitutional monarchy. Your most important champion was Manuel Fernandes Tomás.
Constitutional monarchy since the end of Miguelistenkrieges
In the first phase after the end of Miguelistenkrieges one can not speak of political parties However, it can, however, distinguish three political movements:
- The Miguelisten ( " miguel istas " ), that is, the followers of the exiled King Michael ( in Portuguese Dom Miguel). Since Michael was the last king who ruled absolutist, they were recruited mainly from the followers of the former absolutists.
- The Cartisten ( " cartistas " ), that is, the supporters of the Constitutional Charter of 1826th They placed the conservative part of the constitutionalists dar.
- The Setembristen ( " setembristas " ), that is, the supporters of the liberal constitution of 1821 (see also Liberal revolution in Portugal), the left-liberal part of the constitutionalists.
For these flows, the parties that should characterize Portugal until the end of monarchy developed:
- Regeneration Party ( Partido Regenerador ), the oldest Portuguese Party ( founded in 1851 ), a conservative party that took over the heritage of the Cartisten. Most important politicians were: the Duke of Saldanha, the Duke of Terceira, Joaquim António de Aguiar, António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo, António de Serpa Pimentel and Ernesto Hintze Ribeiro Rodolfo.
- The Past Party ( Partido Histórico ), founded in 1854, left liberal, the political heirs of Setembristen. The most important politicians of this party was the Duke of Loulé.
- Of this in 1867 seceded from the Reformist Party ( Partido reform Paulista ), the most important politicians of this party was the Margrave of Sá da Bandeira.
- Reformist Party and Historical Party united to the 1876 Progressive Party. Your main leaders were Anselmo José and José Luciano de Castro Braamcamp.
- The Liberal Party regeneration, the 1901 split off from the party regeneration. Your most important political leader was João Franco.
- Founded in 1875, the Portuguese Socialist Party ( PSP) is considered the oldest socialist party establishment, but could only achieve a limited political influence and broke up in 1926 with the end of the First Republic;
- The Republican Party, founded in 1876, during the time of the monarchy never turned a government often been exposed to persecution, and because of an unfavorable for them voting system never was able to achieve a greater number of parliamentary mandates. Nevertheless, the Republicans were quickly outside parliament to a significant political force.
- The Portuguese Republican Party (PRP - Partido Republicano Português), a successor organization of the monarchy Republican Party. They split in 1912 PD, PRE and unionists.
- The Democratic Party (PD - Partido Democrático ), the main successor party to the PRP and most meaningful party during the First Republic. Important politicians: Afonso Costa and António Maria da Silva
- The evolutionary - Republican Party (PRE - Partido Republicano Evolucionista ), the most important politicians: António José de Almeida.
- The Unionist Party ( Partido Union Paulista ), the most important politicians: Brito Camacho.
- Evolutionists and Unionists united in 1919 to the Liberal Republican Party (PLR - Partido Liberal Republicano ), the most important politicians: António Joaquim Granjo.
- Of the PLR to split the Republican Party of National Reconstruction ( Prrn - Partido Republicano because Reconstituição Nacional), the most important politician Álvaro de Castro and the
- Liberal Republican Union (ULR - União Liberal, Republican ) from.
Military dictatorship and Estado Novo
During the years of the Salazar dictatorship, the Estado Novo, there was only a single party, namely the
- National Union (UN - União Nacional) It was after 1968 to
- National People's Action (ANP - Acção Nacional Popular) renamed.
After the Carnation Revolution, the main political parties of the country were reestablished. These are:
- Maoist, now largely marginalized Partido Comunista dos Trabalhadores Portugueses - Movimento Reorganizativo do Partido do Proletariado ( PCTP - MRPP, Communist Party of the Portuguese Workers - movement to reorganize the party of the proletariat ) with Arnaldo Matos Pereira and Garcia as the most important representatives;
- The Bloco de Esquerda (BE, Left Bloc ), a consortium of four organizations of the radical left and non-Party;
- Partido Comunista Português of (PCP, Communist Party of Portugal ), one part of the Coligação Democrática Unitaria (CDU, Democratic Unity coalition ) with Bento António Gonçalves and Álvaro Cunhal as important representatives;
- The Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes " ( PEV, Ecological Party "The Greens " ), the other part of the left - green party alliance CDU;
- The Partido Socialista (PS, Socialist Party ) with Mário Soares, António Guterres and Jorge Sampaio as the most important representatives;
- The moderately conservative Partido Popular Democrático (PPD, Democratic People's Party), the 1976 in Partido Social Democrata (PSD, Social Democratic Party ) renamed itself, with Francisco Sá Carneiro, Magalhães Mota, Francisco Pinto Balsemão, Aníbal Cavaco Silva, José Manuel Durão Barroso and Manuela Ferreira Leite as the most important representatives;
- The right-wing conservative Centro Democrático e Social ( CDS, Democratic and Social Centre), the 1991 Centro Democrático e Social - Partido Popular ( CDS -PP, Democratic and Social Centre - Portuguese People's Party) was charged with Adelino Amaro da Costa, Diogo Freitas do Amaral and Basílio Horta as important representatives;
- The Partido Popular Monárquico (PPM, Monarchical People's Party);
- Aliança Democrática (AD, Democratic Alliance), founded in 1979, a coalition of conservative parties PSD, CDS and PPM, which broke up in 1983 again;
- The initially moderate left Partido Renovador Democrático (PRD, Democratic Renewal Party), whose main leader General António Ramalho Eanes was and entered in its place in 2000, the now right-wing Partido Nacional Renovador (PNR, National Renewal Party).