List of spaceflight records
This list shows all records of manned space flight for the following categories:
- Longest time in space ( for a single flight or for all flights of the space traveler )
- Longest time on the moon,
- Most space flights,
- Achieved maximum speeds and distances,
- The oldest man in space,
- Most people simultaneously in space,
- 2.1 Ranking by number of space missions
- 2.2 history
- 3.2 The largest EVA experience
- 3.3 Duration of individual spacewalks 3.3.1 Current Ranking
- 3.3.2 History
- 4.1 Maximum distance from Earth 4.1.1 History
- 4.2.1 History
- 5.1 Current Ranking
- 5.2 Historical Development
- 6.1 Current Ranking
- 6.2 Historical Development
- 7.1 Historical Development
- 8.1 Age
- 8.2 periods
- 8.3 spaceships and space stations
- 8.4 International
- 8.5 Financial Independence
- 8.6 Technical
Longest total time in space
Current Ranking by Astronauts
The list, which is dominated by Soviet / Russian space travelers, shows that long-term stays aboard space stations long time the domain of the Soviet / Russian space program was and still is. It was only in 20th place comes with Michael Fincke ( 381 days ), a NASA astronaut. High -placed West Europeans Thomas Reiter with 350 days.
At the beginning of manned space flight was still unclear how long a person can stay in space. Already the second astronaut, German Titov, suffered from space sickness. Furthermore, experience flights with dogs, which lasted for several weeks that significantly degrade the bone. Only with the systematic study of the phenomenon and a targeted training longer residence times in space were possible.
It was also found that the body can better get used in repeated flights to weightlessness.
Longest space flight
At number 11 in the U.S. American Michael López- Alegría is with a flight of 215 days, at number 16 of the Kazakh Talghat Musabayev with 207 days. The Western Europeans with the longest flight is Frenchman Jean -Pierre Haigneré 188 days.
Longest time on the moon
Account is taken of the time from the placing of the lunar module until they take off.
Number of space flights
Ranking by number of space missions
- 7 space flights: Jerry Ross ( since April 2002), Franklin Chang- Diaz (since June 2002)
- 6 spaceflights: John Young ( since November 1983), Story Musgrave (since November 1996), Curtis Brown (since December 1999), Jim Wetherbee ( since November 2002), Colin Michael Foale (since October 2003), Sergei Krikaljow (since April 2005 )
If one were to take the number of space flights, would have completed the first John Young seven space flights, he has launched a spacecraft from the lunar surface. All astronauts who landed on the moon would accordingly a space flight more.
Of the astronauts of the guest nations (not the Soviet Union / Russia or the USA ) holds the Swiss Claude Nicollier with four space flights the record.
The largest EVA experience
For the duration of a space exit, there are different definitions, so there can be variations from other sources.
The spaceman with the most EVA experience, does not come from Russia (or the Soviet Union) and the United States, the Swede Christer Fuglesang, who brought it with five exits at 31 hours and 54 minutes. The German Thomas Reiter has three exits after 14 hours and 15 minutes of EVA experience. On the 5th place in the list Sunita Williams is 50 hours and 40 minutes, making it the first-placed woman.
Duration of individual spacewalks
This list can be divided into three phases.
In the first phase 1965/1966 spaceman left their spaceship in orbit to gather first experiences in spacewalks. Caused problems especially the movements in weightlessness and the air conditioning of the space suits.
In the second phase from 1969 to 1972, the moon landings were. The exits were not made in zero gravity, but in the reduced gravity of the moon. Improved life support systems in space suits allowed a stay of over seven hours outside the lunar module.
In the current phase space spacewalks are mostly used to control, construction and repair of space stations or satellites. The resulting work will take several hours and are less determined by the performance of technical systems as related to the physical load limit of the spaceman. In this respect, no large increases in EVA periods are expected.
The shortest exit Gennadi Ivanovich Padalka and previously led Michael Reed Barratt by on June 10, 2009. While only 12 minutes they exchanged a hatch on the Russian segment of the station.
Speed and Distance
Maximum distance from the earth
According to the laws of physics, space the web speed and the web height are linked in orbits, the higher the web, the lower the web speed. The biggest velocity could be, therefore, achieve in a very low orbit. The theoretical maximum for a circular orbit is about 7800 m / s Since the orbits are not circular but elliptical, however, higher speeds can be achieved, which then lead to a larger apogee. In extreme cases, beyond the apogee reaches to the moon or.
A space station is moving at about 8 km / s around the earth, so that in one day about 680 thousand kilometers to be covered. Thus, the flight durations can be easily converted into the distance, and the ranking of spaceman with the greatest distance traveled corresponds to the ranking of spaceman with the biggest flight duration. Inaccuracies due to different line speeds can be neglected.
Sergei Krikaljow has traveled about 550 million kilometers during his 803 days in space. That's about four times the distance from Earth to the sun.
Taking into account is the age at landing.
Most people at a time in space
The largest number of astronauts who were simultaneously in the universe is 13 as long as the ISS crew consisted of three persons, this number could only be achieved if a space station crew has just been replaced with a Soyuz spacecraft and parallel to a Space Shuttle mission ran. The increase of the ISS crew to six people, this number was also achieved when a space shuttle was docked with seven astronauts. Then 13 people were simultaneously on the same space station.
Most of those on board the same spacecraft
With the advancement of space flight carrying capacity of the missiles were larger and thus more people could be started simultaneously. The limit was placed on the size of the spacecraft, which they inhabited during the flight. With the development of the coupling adapter, it was then possible to establish mechanical joints between the spacecraft and thus to increase the overall capacity of the connected elements. If this was only limited by their size and an adapter with spaceships, space stations currently only prevent an increase in regulations over a total occupation number of 13 persons out.
- Youngest spaceman: German Titov was during his flight with Vostok 2 only 25 years old.
- Youngest commander of a multi-person spacecraft: Pyotr Klimuk was only 31 years old during the flight of Soyuz 13.
- Recent multi-person crew of a spaceship: Pyotr Klimuk and Valentin Lebedev were both only 31 years old at the flight of Soyuz 13.
- Oldest Crew: The crew of Soyuz TMA -7 consisted of Valery Tokarev (52 years ), William McArthur (54 years ) and Gregory Olsen (60 years), resulting in an average age of almost 56 years.
- Shortest distance between two space flights: had on account of technical problems of flight STS -83 will be terminated prematurely in April 1997. NASA repeated the flight as STS -94 with the same crew, so the astronauts Halsell, Still - Kilrain, Voss, Thomas, Gernhardt, Crouch and Linteris again started only 84 days after their landing into space.
- Longest time between two space flights: between the two space flights of John Glenn Mercury - Atlas 6 and STS -95 passed 36 years.
- Shortest total time in space of a man: Yuri Gagarin with 1 h 48 min
- Shortest total time in space of a man with multiple planes: Virgil Grissom with 5 h 7 min
- Shortest spaceflight: Alan Shepard with 15 min 22 sec ( Mercury - Redstone 3)
- Longest time between selection and space flight: Leonid Kadenjuk 1976 was selected as a Soviet cosmonaut, but flew only 21 years and 3 months later with STS -87 into space, now as a Ukrainian citizen in an American space shuttle.
- Longest uninterrupted spaceman career: Between the first and the fourth space flight of Valeri Rjumin were 20 years and 8 months.
- Longest period with at least one man in space: since 31 October 2000 7:52:47 UTC was always at least one person in space. This is since 23 October 2010, the longest period of time in which at least was a man in space. You currently amounts to 4907 days. The previous record period of 3644 days was between the launch of Soyuz TM-8 on 5 September 1989 and the landing of Soyuz TM -29 on 28 August 1999.
- The last time, not a single man in space: The period between the landing of STS- 92 on October 24, 2000 at 20:59:41 UTC and the launch of Soyuz TM -31 to the International Space Station on 31 October 2000 at 07:52: 47 UTC was the last time period in which not a single person was in space. This phase lasted 6 days 10 hrs 53 minutes.
Spaceships and space stations
- First spaceman, who contributed two spacecraft types: Virgil Grissom flew Mercury - Redstone 4 (1961) and Gemini 3 in 1964.
- First spaceman who steered three spacecraft types: Walter Schirra flew Mercury Atlas 8 (1963 ), Gemini 6 (1966) and Apollo 7 (1968).
- First spaceman who steered four spacecraft types: John Young flew Gemini 3 (1964 ), Apollo 10 (1969 ), Apollo 16 ( Lunar Module) (1972) and STS -1 ( 1981).
- First astronaut who visited within a space flight two space stations: Leonid Kizim and Vladimir Solovyov flew in 1986 with Soyuz T-15 first to the Mir space station, then to the space station Salyut 7 and brought equipment from there to me.
- First spaceman, who started from two different countries: Sergei Krikaljow was in February 1994 when STS -60 was the first Russian cosmonaut on board of an American space shuttle. Previously, he had performed as a Soviet cosmonaut two space flights.
- First space tourist Dennis Tito was able to start on 28 April 2001 aboard Soyuz TM- 32 to a short-term stay aboard the International Space Station.
- First spaceman who came into space without financial support from a government: Michael Melvill flew on 21 June 2004, the company Scaled Composites SpaceShipOne to an altitude of 100 095 feet, reaching the space.
- First sample return of another celestial body: During the lunar stay of Apollo 11 (July 20, 1969 13:32 to 21 July 1969 17:54 UTC) 21.6 kg of lunar rocks were collected and then returned to Earth.
- First manned rover on another celestial body: the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) was for the first time in the Apollo 15 mission, July 31, 1971 13:13 UTC, are used.