Locative case

The locative is a term used in grammar and refers to a case occurring in different languages ​​(case ). Nouns that are in the locative, usually have the function of local information. In some cases, in addition to the actual locative still occur more local cases that indicate a highly differentiated, in which an object spatial relationship to a place is ( in, on, under, in, in, out, close, away, etc.). In languages ​​that do not have a separate case for location information, this task is usually taken by prepositions.


In some Indo-European languages ​​there are remains of an existing in Primitive Indo-European locative have received. So there are in Latin locative still in the names of towns and small islands, provided that the o-or a- declension belong to and are in the singular - the locative is true then the same as the genitive singular, eg Romae = " Rome " - as well as in the forms dominate ( at home), ruri ( in the country ), humi ( on the floor) and Vesperi ( in the evening). In all other cases, either the pure ablative or a prepositional phrase is used instead of the locative.

In Russian, are remnants of the locative in some nouns after prepositions в ( in ), на (on ) and very rare in при ( in addition to ) have been preserved, such as в снегу ( in the snow ), на носу (on the nose) при, полку ( the regiment ), на берегу ( on the shore ), в степи ( in the desert ). Otherwise, the locative was mostly for Präpositiv ( in Czech and Slovak analogous to Local).

Also, the Turkish (which is not among the Indo-European languages ​​) knows the locative. It is expressed ( anneals to - te - ta and after voiceless consonants ) by the suffixes -en and - there. In proper names this ending is separated by an apostrophe. The extension is subject to the small vowel harmony. Examples: Ankara'da = in Ankara, Ürgüp'te = in Urgup, Bodrum'da = in Bodrum, plajda = on the beach, okulda = in school, at Bülent'te = Bülent, doktorda = the doctor, etc.

In addition to the Turkish are also in some other Turkic languages ​​such as Kyrgyz, and in the lesgischen language (which does not Turkic, but a ostkaukasische language), next to the locative (where?) And ablative ( from where? ) And allative ( where? ) As to make independent case. As an example can serve again the Turkish language, where the extensions are changing as the locative above. Examples of the ablative: Istanbul = İstanbul'dan, from the summit = doruktan; Examples of allative: Şırnak'a = after Şırnak (but read exceptionally schırnağa ) = kayağa to ski (Turkish kayak ), Erek Bey'e = the Lord Erek, etc.

In the Finno-Ugric languages ​​the locative is also available. So the Lokativkasus be realized among other things the Hungarian by Wortsuffixe, in this example of ház (House): In inessive (eg házban, in the house in it), in the elative ( házból, out of the house ), in the illative ( házba, into the house ), in adessive ( Hazon, on the house), the ablative ( háztól, away from the house ), and finally in allative ( házhoz, towards the house ). As in Hungary, there is also the Finnish a very differentiated system of local cases, which consists of a total of six cases: the example talo ( house ), these are the inessive (eg Talossa, in the house in it), the elative ( talosta, out of the house ), the illative ( taloon, into the house ), the adessive ( talolla, on the house), the ablative ( talolta, away from the house ), and finally the allative ( talolle, towards the house ).

Another example of a language with a more differentiated system of local cases is Lithuanian. Here, as the four locative case referred to: inessive ( Miške in the forest), illative ( miškan in the forest ), adessive ( miškiep the forest ), allative ( miškop for the woods ). These cases are referred to as secondary, because they are in the Eastern Baltic languages ​​( in the Western Baltic are not used) probably under the influence of Finno- Ugric languages ​​have emerged relatively late. The old Indo-European locative ( miškie ) has disappeared, it was replaced by the inessive. In the standard language only inessive and Illativ are used, all four cases are still in some dialects, especially in enclaves in Belarus in use. The cases sometimes have a secondary meaning, eg jis prisipažino meilėje ( In. he has einbekannt love, number of digits: in love. ) Išeiti viešumon ( Ill., come to the public, number of digits: . To the public ), manip jau visa padaryta ( Ad., I've done everything, number of digits. everything is already done for me ), but usually only in older dialects or language certificates.

In some Upper German dialects, location and direction information is präpositionslos coded. But as the case marking is greatly reduced, is not spoken here by locative (eg i living Villach me WARMA Tarvisio ). In High German the Lokativfunktionen be done by the dative; left standing in word forms the genitive lokativische function has ( here locally, outdated and there -urban).