Longchaumois is a commune in the French department of Jura in the Franche -Comté.
Longchaumois is located 890 meters above sea level. M., about ten kilometers north- northeast of the town of Saint- Claude ( straight line ). The village is located in the Jura, on a wide plateau south of the deep river run of Bienne, on the northern edge of the Forêt FRENOIS the Hautes- Combes.
The area of 57.60 km ² municipal area includes a portion of the French Jura. The central part of the area occupied by the plateau of Longchaumois, which has a width of 3 km and a length of five kilometers and an average of 900 meters above sea level. M. lies. This plateau is drained by the Pissevieille west to Bienne. The northwestern boundary of the plateau forms the hills of the Monts de Bienne (up to 940 m above sea level. M. ), which mark the steep drop to the deep erosion valley of Bienne ( municipal boundary ). The river is incised about 400 m into the surrounding Jura plateaus.
The landscape that connects the south-east of the plateau of Longchaumois, has only relatively small differences in relief and is characterized by parallel terrain ridges and valleys (called Combes ), which are oriented in the southwest-northeast direction according to the strike of the Jura Mountains in the area. In structural geological terms, they represent a series of anticlines and synclines, which consist predominantly of rock strata of the upper Jurassic period. To the southeast, the height of the ridges is steadily increasing: (. 1,150 meters ) (. 1320m asl ) Bois de la Chaîtes, Bois de la Sambine and Bois de Ban, on the with 1411 meters above sea level. M. the highest elevation of Longchaumois is achieved. Besides the Bienne and the Pissevieille shows the entire community area no surface watercourses, because the rainwater seeps into the porous limestone substrate. In various places there are typical karst features such as sinkholes and karst fields.
To the east, the highlands falls at different Ausräumungskesseln from the headwaters of Bienne. The limit case runs mostly on the edge above the more or less high rock crash and through the Mont Fier (1300 m above sea level. M. ), the Rocher du Tiavy ( 1199 m above sea level. M. ), the Rochers des Arcets ( 1161 m ü. M. ) and the Rocher du Béchet marked. In the far east of the municipality area extends to the upper reaches of the transverse valley of Bienne in Morez. The area of Longchaumois is part of the Parc Naturel Régional du Haut- Jura. Significantly more than half of the area is passed with fir, spruce and beech forests, the rest is mostly pasture land.
To Longchaumois addition to the actual site include numerous hamlets, groups of farms and individual farms that are scattered on the Jura plateau, including:
- Orcières (845 m above sea level. M. ) on a slightly inclined to the south slopes of the Monts de Bienne on the plateau of Longchaumois
- Les Combes ( 859 m above sea level. M. ) on a hill of the plateau of Longchaumois
- Les Baptaillards ( 892 m above sea level. M. ) south on the plateau of the Gorges de la Bienne
- Les Charrières ( 1152 m above sea level. M. ) on a pasture area between Bois de la Chaites and Bois de la Sambine
- The company on the left side of the Bienne houses of La Doye in the transverse valley of Morez
Neighboring communities of Longchaumois are Villard -sur -Bienne, Lézat, La Mouille and Morez in the north, Les Rousses and Prémanon in the east, Lamoura and Saint- Claude in the south and La Rixouse in the West.
Owes its origin Longchaumois the monks of the monastery of Saint- Oyend -de -Joux (now Saint -Claude ). This cleared on the Jura area several tracts of land, made the area under cultivation and thus put the foundation stone for colonization. For the first time the name Longa Calma appears already in the 7th century in the records of the monastery; literally translated it means long pasture. Dating from around 1100, the name Longo Camelo is handed down.
Since the Middle Ages Longchaumois belonged to the dominion of the Abbey of Saint -Claude. Together with the Franche -Comté reached the village with the Peace of Nijmegen in 1678 to France. During the 19th century Longchaumois gained importance as a center of manufacturing scales, a branch of production that characterized the village until 1960.
The parish church of Saint -Jean -Baptiste was built in the 17th century and has a Gothic choir, as well as several significant wooden statues from the 16th and 17th centuries. The Maison de la Flore shows, among other exhibits on the flora and fauna in part of the high Jura.
With 1159 inhabitants (as of 1 January 2011) Longchaumois one of the smaller towns in the Jura. After the population had decreased significantly in the first half of the 20th century (1896 1808 people were still counted ), a significant population increase has been recorded since the mid- 1970s again.
Economy and infrastructure
Longchaumois has long been a predominantly coined by agriculture, especially livestock and dairy farming, as well as by the forestry village. In addition, there are now several companies of small and medium enterprises. Besides the traditional branches of cheese making and wood crafts are now companies that specialize in production of glasses, plastics processing and Precision Engineering, represented in the village.
As a resort in a popular tourist area in the High Jura Longchaumois now benefiting also from tourism, especially on winter tourism, when cross-country skiing can be operated on the plateau of the Hautes- Combes. The slightly steeper slopes at Roches are accessible by ski lifts for alpine skiing.
The village is located off the major thoroughfares of the secondary road D69, which runs from Saint- Claude to Morez. Further road links exist with Lamoura and Prémanon.