Dereše (left), Chopok ( in the middle) and Dumbier (right)
The geologist Dionys Stur designated 1860 the mountains in relation to the northern ( High ) Tatras as Niznie Tatry ( in former Slovak spelling), German "Lower Tatras ". This term was in 1863 erroneously translated into Hungarian as Alacsony - Tátra, meaning " Low Tatras ". From there, this designation spread into other languages and back into Slovak.
The mountain range consists of:
- Ďumbierske Tatry in the west ( named after the mountain Dumbier )
- Kráľovohoľské Tatry in the east (named after the mountain Kráľova hoľa )
The westernmost mountain group Starohorské Hills and the north-east ridge extending in Poprad be chrbty Kozie today no more than the Low Tatras belong, but considered as a separate mountain.
The main ridge is 95 km long and extends mainly in east-west direction. Length sections of this ridge rise above the ( located at about 1,500 m) tree line; only the lower central section between the passes Čertovica and Priehyba is predominantly forested. Highest peaks are Dumbier with 2043.4 m nm N.M. and Chopok with 2023.6 m Draw from the main ridge of long side ridges to the north; to the south the mountain drops off significantly steeper. Only in the area of Dumbier reach the North and the southern slopes of the main ridge about the same length. The most famous region of the mountain range is the Demänovská ( Demänova Valley ) with the homonymous resort and ski resort of Jasna.
The Low Tatras is limited
- In the north from the valley of the Waag and the Black Waag,
- Chrbty in the northeast of the Kozie,
- To the east by the Slovak Paradise,
- To the south by the valley of Hron,
- Hills in the south west of the Starohorské and
- In the northwest of the Velka Fatra.
Roughly divided consist of the main ridge and its southern side ridges of crystalline rocks, which dominated gneiss in the west of the mountain granite, to the east. In the northern side of ridges and valleys is an extensive cave system, which is located in limestone and dolomite of the Triassic and is extremely interesting from its geological development ago. Two of the caves are open to the public: The Demänovská Cave Sloboda ( Demänovska stalactite cave, literally: Cave of Freedom ) and the Demänovská Ice Cave ( Demänovska Cave ). Other important karst caves are the Demänovská Cave Mieru ( Demänovska peace cavity) and the Bystrianska Cave. In particular, on the northern slope of the main chain are in remote and difficult to reach valleys remains of the medieval ore mining (gold, silver and lead ores ) to find.
Flora and Fauna
The Low Tatras are - apart from the higher-lying areas - densely forested, with needle, dominate on the north side to the south side of mixed forests. In about 1,500 to 1,800 m altitude mountain pine are strongly represented in still higher regions of the bristle grass. The northern, consisting of limestone side combs favor the occurrence of rare alpine plant species, including the alpine gentian.
Predominant species are deer, wild boar and deer. In the dense forests are still home to many brown bears and lynx. Above the tree line chamois and marmots are found. Due to the large number of caves to live in the mountains many bat species.
The Low Tatras itself is very sparsely populated. In the mountains, there are few places which, due to its remoteness often seem very original, which is expressed both in the construction and in the traditions ( costumes ) (eg Liptovská Teplička, Liptovská Lúžna ). Here and in the numerous locations on the edge of the mountain are now living almost exclusively Slovaks; formerly resident in some German minority communities (eg in Liptovsky Mikulas and in Brezno ) was expelled after the Second World War.
The most important industry in the mountains is tourism. The Low Tatras is an excellent hiking area with many beautiful views. The major ski resorts are located on the Chopok and Demänová Valley ( Jasna ). Accommodations are generally in sufficient numbers - though not everywhere everywhere - present. Play an important role in the forestry and grazing.
The Low Tatras are good transport links. In the north of the railway line Žilina - Košice runs, in the south - that is, in the valley of Hron - the route Banská Bystrica - Cervena Skala - Margecany. In virtually all the settlements - even in the tourist areas - regular buses. In parallel with the railway line Žilina - Košice runs at the Waag D1 motorway.
In the mountains of the Low Tatras National Park was established in 1978; its size is 123 990 ha In addition, a number of areas placed under special protection has been:
- Prírodné rezervácie (PR, nature reserves )
- Národné Prírodné rezervácie (NPR, National Nature Reserves )
- Prírodná pamiatka (PP, natural monuments )
- Národná prírodná pamiatka (NPP, National Nature Monuments)
- Chránený areál (CHA, protected area )
- Dumbier, 2043.4 m
- Štiavnica, 2025.3 m
- Chopok, 2023.6 m
- Dereše, 2003.5 m
- Skalka, 1980.1 m
- Chabenec, 1955.0 m
- Kráľova hoľa, 1946.1 m
- Kotiská, 1936.9 m
- Krupová hola, 1927.5 m
- Zákľuky, 1914.5 m
- Polana (Lower Tatras ), 1889.7 m
- Boron, 1887.6 m
- Konské, 1882.3 m
- Stredná hola, 1875.9 m
- Bana, 1859.1 m
- Žiarska hola, 1840.5 m
- Orlová, 1840.4 m
- Kralická, 1807.4 m
- Bartková, 1790.2 m
- Velky Gapel, 1,776,5 m
- VeLka Chochuľa, 1,753.2
- Krakova hola, 1751.6 m
- Ďurková, 1749.8 m
- Ludárova hola, 1731.6 m
- Velky Bok 1727.1 m