The Lower Lusatia, Lower Dolna Łužyca ( Upper Sorbian Delnja Lužica, Polish Dolne Łużyce ) is a region and a former territory in the south of Brandenburg, Saxony in northern and western Poland. Its center is the city of Cottbus.
The Lower Lusatia is the northern part of Lusatia., Is in Lower Lusatia and in the south bordering Upper Lusatia, the western Slavic people of the Sorbs home.
- 3.5.1 counties
- 4.1 industry
- 4.2 infrastructure 4.2.1 rail links
Coat of arms
Since the year 1363 the Lower Lausitz has a right border in silver bull own coat of arms. After the death of Emperor Charles IV in 1387, the bull was shown beaten tail in silver with red on the back. It has thus resemblance to the arms of the city Luckau, which was one of the seven major cities in the Lower Lusatia in the Middle Ages. In contrast to Luckauer Taurus the Bull in Lower Lusatia is not reinforced. It is valid up to today.
The former Margraviate "Mark Lausitz ", which emerged during the eastward expansion of the Holy Roman Empire, is referred to about the 14th century as " Lower Lusatia ".
Geography and Nature
The territory of Lower Lusatia is limited by the rivers Spree in the north, Bober in the east, Schwarze Elster in the south and in the west Dahme.
The northern border of Lower Lusatia runs north from Golßen to Hartmann Village, follows the Spree sheet or the Spree Schlepzig, Pretschen further to the north Zaue for Schwieloch. From there it goes north Friedland and Mixdorf in Ziltendorfer lowlands to the Oder and finally east to Niemaschkleba (Polish Chlebowo ), a part of the rural community Gubin, Poland. The eastern boundary runs in Poland approximately along the line Niemaschkleba -Sommerfeld. The place Sommerfeld (Polish Lubsko ) itself is not in Lower Lusatia. It follows then from Legel (Polish Lagoda ) to Christian city (Polish Krzystkowice ) the Bober Bober and bends west of the village by Kunz (Polish Kunice Żarskie ), a southeastern suburb of Sorau (Polish Zary ) from.
In the southeast, about the line Kunz village to large Särchen (Polish Żarki Wielkie ) forms on the Lusatian Neisse border and follows thence along the former Brandenburg- Saxon border until 1952 the Black Elster this then to Lauchhammer (formerly Mückenberg ). In the southwest, the border changed several times for the Lower Lusatia as an administrative area (including Margraviate ). So Finsterwalde, Senftenberg, Doberlug -Kirchhain and Sonnenwalde among each city for itself in different eras and times to Saxon territory to map the boundary between the rule Dobrilugk, today Doberlug -Kirchhain and the county Landsberg is the most stable recognizable. Since 1993 there is the Elbe-Elster district, derived from the Elbe- Elster- country, so you can see the western boundary of either the old line Buchhain about Trebbus and Luckau to Schenkendorfstraße (west of Golßen ) or along the country Oberspreewald -Lausitz.
The German part of Lower Lusatia is part of the North German lowlands. Through them, the Lusatian border wall, part of the southern land back, the northwest continues in the Lower Flaming pulls. It involves the Hauptendmoräne the Warta stage of the Saale ice age. The highest elevation of the Lusatian border wall and thus Lower Lusatia is the 227 m high mountain ridge ( Góra Żarska ) in Zary. The southern ridge is here a watershed dar. Along a wide parallel line through Finsterwalde to Calau ( Calauer Switzerland ) arise from small rivers such as the Kleine Elster and streams that flow mostly to the north and culminate in the Spreewald in the Spree. Breakthroughs have created coming from the south rivers Dahme, Spree and Neisse. South of the border wall Lusatian the glacial valley of the Schwarze Elster joins.
In the period of early Weichselhochglazials during the Brandenburg stage was glaciated only the northern part of Lower Lusatia (about 19600-19000 years ago). The remnants of the heavily weathered and partially ablated completely Endmoränenzüge this stage and the associated outwash plains are located north of the Spreewald. Heard as trough the Glogau - Baruth glacial valley whose bed is used in Lower Lusatia from the Malxe and the Spree river, which branches here to the Spreewald to this younger glacial series.
The surface of Lower Lusatia was created fundamentally in the late Middle Pleistocene around 150,000 years ago and glaziär in the following epochs of Jungpleistozäns and the Holocene, but especially periglacial weathering, erosion, irrigation and drift as well as by aeolian and fluvial sedimentation formed.
In mineral resources can be found next to lignite and gravel deep-lying deposits of copper, which extend from Spremberg and white water up to the Polish Lubin.
Last profound changes in the landscape emerged since the thirties of the 20th century, and reinforced in GDR times by the application of large lignite mines, where more than 100 villages were killed. Up to the present locations are destroyed, Horno, Lakoma or thimble.
Water and land
→ See also: Lusatian Lakeland
- Lusatian Neisse
- Schwarze Elster
Landscapes and natural areas
- Lausitz Border Wall
- Nature Park Niederlausitzer moorland, partly in present-day Elbe- Elster- country
- Natural Park of Lower Landrücken
- Nature Park Schlaubetal
The Lower Lusatia is one of the driest regions in Germany. In only three to four months per year, a monthly rainfall of more than 50 mm is achieved.
Urban centers were and are Cottbus ( Chóśebuz ) as the largest city, the historical capitals of the country Lubben / Spreewald ( Lubin / Błota ) and Luckau ( Luków ) and Guben ( Gubin ), Calau ( Kalawa ) Finsterwalde ( Grabin ), forestry ( Baršć ), Senftenberg ( zły Komorów ) Spremberg ( Grodk ) Lübbenau / Spreewald ( Lubnjow / Błota ), Vetschau ( Wětošow ) and in the southwest Doberlug -Kirchhain (formerly Dobrilugk ) and Lauchhammer ( Luchow; Upper Sorbian: Železarnje ), see also same - Elster country, as well as in the Polish part of the city Zary ( Żarów; German: Sorau ).
Currently, the area of Lower Lusatia is divided within the federal state of Brandenburg in several circles.
- Cottbus ( cycle-free ) ( CB)
- Elbe- Elster ( EE), partially
- Dahme -Spreewald ( LDS), partially
- Oberspreewald -Lausitz ( OSL)
- Oder- Spree ( LOS), partially
- Spree- Neisse (SPN)
The Lower Lusatia is, regardless of the relatively sparse population, as all regions of Central Europe an intensely designed by the people 's cultural landscape. It is dominated by pine forests, heaths and auwald like alder forests, but also by agricultural land, grasslands and fields.
After the reunification of Germany in 1990 the German part of Lower Lusatia has been largely de-industrialized during the first subsequent years. From the formerly important glass industry, textiles and wood processing exist only small remnants. Due to the lack of capital and by the much more efficient technique, especially in the main economic activity of energy, much the employee has left the Lower Lusatia again. The lignite is of three lignite-fired power plants still the largest employer, the export of electrical energy into the German grid main branch. Simply by renewable energies of the intrinsic current needs will be met in some regions. Accordingly, even small and medium-sized companies in the metalworking and mechanical engineering in the same region. Research and development is operated in biotechnology ( Lausitz ) and chemical industry ( BASF). In addition, since the mid- 2000s go several of the largest solar parks such as the Solar Park Finsterwalde and SolarPark love Rose in operation.
A challenge to the development of renewable energy to check out the line capacity and the slow expansion of the pipeline network in the south of Germany dar. During the economic redefinition initially failed projects like the production of airships ( Cargo lifter), but were by other as now, the holiday park Tropical Islands compensated.
To Spremberg and white water should be reduced from 1500m depth from around 2015, about 200 million tons of copper ore.
In the Lusatian Lake District is established as a new industry of tourism since the 2000s and is gaining importance.
After 22 years since the reunification of Germany, there are also in Lower Lusatia shortage of skilled labor, which is due to, among others, the aging, but also lower wages at a similar price level, compared to other regions in Germany. So corresponded to 21 February 2012 the fuel price for super gasoline (E5 ) with € 1.669 approximately that of the daily average for the whole of Germany ( € 1.675 ).
By transporting the lignite the railway network is very well developed, every city from about 8,000 residents thus offers access to the surrounding cities of Berlin, Cottbus, Dresden and Leipzig. All routes operated since the late 1980s and electrified double track to the main track Cottbus- Görlitz. The connection to the Polish network is only possible on single-track lines. The exception is the distance over Hoyerswerda and Kohlfurth ( Węgliniec ) to Wroclaw ( Wrocław).
- Berlin- Lubben (Spreewald) -Lübbenau/Spreewald-Cottbus-Spremberg-Weißwasser-Görlitz
- Cottbus- Guben and Frankfurt (Oder)
- Leipzig / Halle- Torgau- Falkenberg / Elster Doberlug -Kirchhain - Finsterwalde - Calau - Cottbus
- Kamenz ( Upper Lusatia ) - Senftenberg - Calau - Lübbenau
- Węgliniec Lower Silesia in Poland Hoyerswerda - Ruhland - Senftenberg - Lauchhammer - Elsterwerda bath Liebenwerda-Falkenberg/Elster goods Magistrale
- Dresden -Großenhain - Senftenberg - Cottbus
The road network is formed in addition to the country roads of the federal highways 87, 96, 97, 102, 112, 115, 156, 169, 179 and 320, with plans to expand the B after the 2 1 system 169. To achieve better connection to the north and west, and the 2 1- expansion of B 87 from Leipzig to Frankfurt ( Oder) is required. In north-south -east directions highways run 13 and 15 education and utilities are the Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus, Lausitz University and for example the Carl- Thiem -Klinikum Cottbus and the Hospital Lower Lusatia well developed, with the rising house shortage of doctors is a major problem.
The agriculture on relatively poor soils in Germany niederschlagsärmstem climate is limited productive. So especially flax for linseed oil, corn, canola and asparagus are grown to Calau. Some agricultural products from Lower Lusatia, in particular from the Spreewald, Germany far have a very good reputation.
The observation tower at the Rusty nail Sornoer channel COR- TEN steel
Of tourist interest is traditionally the Spreewald. Importance are also the city of Cottbus, and the significant architectural point of view from garden park of Prince Pueckler, the Branitzer Park ( Cottbus ) Branitz and the Fuerst - Park Bad Muskau. Through the restoration and flooding of former opencast mines also the tourist region Lusatian Lakeland is emerging.
The Lower Lusatia is superbly developed by Radfern - and - regional on account. To the east of the Oder- Neisse Cycle limits the region. Central it is traversed by the river Spree Cycle Path. As a regional routes to offer the Froschradweg and the Lower Lusatian mining Tour ( across countries Brandenburg and Saxony ). In the north, in the Spreewald area close to the cucumber bike path and the prince Pueckler tour. In the southwest of the Elster bike path leads to the same bike path.
An entertainment theaters and ensembles in Cottbus, about the Staatstheater Cottbus with the Philharmonic Orchestra of Cottbus, the New Stage in Senftenberg, and the more than 100 -year-old presenter Kinozweckbauten, two of the oldest, the world mirror Cottbus and the world mirror Finsterwalde are worth mentioning.
Regarding the Lower Lusatian traditions and rituals particularly enshrined in the Lausitz Sorbian traditions are worth mentioning, such as the Zampern ( camprowanje ), Rooster plucking ( kokot ), how to decorate Easter eggs or bird wedding. A part of the popular culture also represent the Sorbian costumes - especially the Spreewald costume - but which are now applied almost only on feast days and for tourism purposes.
- Lower Lusatian dialect
- German - Lower Sorbian place name list