Lower Rhine region
The Lower Rhine region shortened, and the Lower Rhine, is bordering on the Netherlands region in the west of North Rhine- Westphalia. It is, however, to distinguish them from the same lower section of the Rhine, both sides of which it extends; The section of river Lower Rhine begins to the southeast of the mouth of victory. The natural spatial definition of the Lower Rhine as the northern part of the Lower Rhine Basin differs because it contrary to common usage, parts of the central Rhineland are included, from that of the Lower Rhine region.
A clear geographical delineation of the actual flat Lower Rhine area of the neighboring landscapes do not exist. The Lower Rhine area also forms neither geologically, historically, politically and culturally a continuous unit. Occasionally, the Lower Rhine region is defined by what it is not: It is not identical with the neighboring Netherlands, with the neighboring Westphalia, with the beginning of the Bergisch Land in the southeast or the northern part of the Eifel, including Ville back in the south. Parts of the Lower Rhine overlap with the Ruhr, but not one of the historic landscapes. Can best be the Lower Rhine area marked as the country, the (former) Low Franconian ( Lower Rhine ) dialects speak its inhabitants.
Core area of the Lower Rhine are the districts of Kleve, Wesel, and Viersen and the cities Krefeld and Duisburg. In addition, count on the eastern and southern parts of the border towns of Isselburg and Oberhausen, Rhein-Kreis Neuss, the city of Mönchengladbach and the circle Heinberg on the Lower Rhine.
The area is approximately equal to the former glories of the country, namely the Duchy of Cleves, the county of Moers and the original Meuse district Roermond the Duchy of funds and the north, left-bank part of the Electorate of Cologne. Prior to the founding of the Prussian Rhine province, these areas were among the most part of the province of Jülich -Cleves -Berg, while areas instead on today's Middle Rhine and the Palatinate were summarized as provincial Grand Duchy of the Lower Rhine.
Dusseldorf, the Rhine near parts of the district of Mettmann and parts of Leverkusen, who belonged to the historical Duchy of Berg are, however, attributed to the Lower Rhine only in the broader sense. They see themselves mostly as part of the (total) Rhineland.
Left of Rhine reaches of the Lower Rhine in the broader sense to about the line Heinberg, Erkelenz, Grevenbroich, Dormagen, rechtsrheinisch to Monheim and the northern parts of the city of Leverkusen and Cologne. This line also corresponds to the spread of the Lower Rhine specialty beer Alt.
While there is no Upper Lower Rhine, the districts Viersen, Heinberg and Neuss and Mönchengladbach and Krefeld are summarized on the Middle Lower Rhine and denotes the circle Wesel and Kleve as Lower Lower Rhine. This classification roughly follow the two industry and commerce on the Lower Rhine, the Lower Rhine Chamber of Commerce Duisburg- Wesel- Kleve Duisburg (which calls itself a Lower Rhine ) and the Chamber of Commerce Central Lower Rhine, Krefeld.
The tourist marketing the districts of Kleve, Viersen and Wesel and the city of Krefeld founded the Niederrhein Tourismus GmbH. To club culture Lower Rhine region include the districts of Kleve, Neuss, Viersen and Wesel and the cities of Dusseldorf, Duisburg, Krefeld and Mönchengladbach. To the region Dusseldorf / Middle Lower Rhine the circles Mettmann Neuss and Viersen and the cities of Dusseldorf, Krefeld and Mönchengladbach have joined. The Lower Rhine forms the German part of the study area two European regions: the Euregio Rhine- Waal and the Euregio Rhein- Maas -Nord.
Also, the administrative district of Dusseldorf is occasionally used to take the little purposeful attempt to define the boundaries of the Lower Rhine. The county includes all Rhine Ruhr cities including Mülheim an der Ruhr and food, but also undoubtedly not the Lower Rhine belonging to the northern part of the Bergisch land, the low Bergische Land, whose dialects but again are Niederrheinische.
The Lower Rhine in the sparsely populated north and west, a fairly rural character. Along the Rhine, he is influenced by the floodplain. The share of agriculture in economic volumes decreased ( as elsewhere ). One of the most significant projects of the district of Kleve was the conversion of the former military airfield in Weeze Weeze to civilian airport; its IATA code NRN was derived from the Lower Rhine.
The city of Mönchengladbach, which was called in the 19th century because of its textile industry, the " Rheinische Manchester ", has received similar Krefeld this sector and the associated specialized engineering today as an important mainstay, but with shrunken scope. Krefeld developed - favored by the inclusion of Protestant exiles ( mostly Mennonite ) - in the 18th century to the center of the production of velvet and silk and was able to successfully preserve this tradition also by nature very difficult conditions that the density of the presence of silk weaving world still is still unequaled. A special field of silk weaving in the Krefeld is the ( reputed and leading European ) Tie production.
The Krefeld eminently important chemical and engineering industries have an important role also in Duisburg. The structural transformation of the broad mining industry to the service sector is made up in the Rhineland Ruhr area, particularly in Duisburg and Oberhausen, continued even though the steel production has overcome its crisis and remains in place long term. The closure of the last mine in Duisburg was completed. In addition to office buildings and microelectronics has also caused by Europe's largest inland port ( Duisport in Duisburg) favored transport logistics of increasing importance to. The transport geography favor at the confluence of the Rhine and Ruhr made Duisburg and the entire Ruhr estuary to the largest site of the German steel industry and the center of German Rhine navigation.
The state capital of Dusseldorf has a strong tertiary sector (trade fair, trade and fashion city, seat of corporations and business associations, a large German banks and stock exchange ). The Dusseldorf airport is among the busiest of the Federal Republic. From standing in the focus of the industry encourage office space this economic metropolis also benefits the left bank of the neighboring town of Neuss, which operates a major inland port, with Dusseldorf. Due to lignite mining Garzweiler and lignite power plants the energy dominates the surrounding countryside of Grevenbroich, the second largest town in the Rhein-Kreis Neuss.
The Lower Rhine is known for its Carnival, whose life is perceived, especially in the southern part of the region by the public. In addition to the Rhenish Carnival also protecting nature is widespread, the shooting in Neuss heard this the best known. Most clubs in the Lower Rhine are within the bonds of historical German Protect brotherhoods ( BHDS ) and its youth organization, the Federation of Sebastianus Protect Youth ( BdSJ ) or the Rhenish Shooting Federation (RSB ) organized.
In the visual arts, the landscape has a long tradition, which it owes, inter alia, the Düsseldorf Art Academy. One of the major art museums in the country, the Kaiser Wilhelm Museum in Krefeld, the dedicated the sculpture Lehmbruck Museum and the Museum include Küppersmühle in Duisburg, the Museum Abteiberg in Mönchengladbach, the Museum Schloss Moyland ( in Bedburg -Hau Kleve ), the Ludwig Galerie Schloss Oberhausen as well as the museum kunst palace and the art collection of North Rhine -Westphalia with its two locations in Dusseldorf.
Art and nature idyll connects the Neuss Museum Hombroich. In Hunxe - Drevenack near Wesel we find the Otto Pankok Museum are exhibited in the permanent works of the Lower Rhine painter and printmaker. Among the numerous other museums can be found, for example, the Lower Rhine motorcycle museum in Moers, the German Textile Museum in Krefeld, which shows one of the most important collections of this topic, the carnival Narrenmühle in Viersen district Dülken and the new Duisburg Atlantis Children's Museum, the largest of its kind in Germany. In the Sculpture Collection Viersen, around the Municipal Gallery in the Park, there are objects of Tony Cragg, Heerich, Roberto Matta, Karl Horst Hödicke and the New Star by Mark di Suvero.
As a nationally recognized theater, the Düsseldorf Schauspielhaus and the German Opera on the Rhine, a theater community of cities Dusseldorf and Duisburg apply. The United City Theater Krefeld and Mönchengladbach are the oldest existing in this form German cooperation Theater. The state of North Rhine -Westphalia has the Burghofbühne Dinslaken and the Rhenish State Theatre Neuss. Not only kids can have fun in Düsseldorf puppet theater and similar Krefeld house Krieewelsche pappköpp. The Moers Castle Theatre, the fledgling Theater Oberhausen, the metronome Theater ( Oberhausen Musical Theatre), the Forum Freies Theater and the Kom (m) ödchen ( Dusseldorf ) and the comedy Duisburg also enrich the stage scenery. For concert Ohrenschmaus the Düsseldorf Symphony, the Duisburg Philharmonic Orchestra and based in Krefeld and Mönchengladbach Lower Rhine Symphony Orchestra, all of whom also serve as an opera orchestra will make. Among the important Lower Rhine authors include Hanns Dieter Hüsch and the well-known by his main work The Island of Second Sight writer Albert Vigoleis Thelen.
Among the established festivals offer are taking place in the amphitheater of the Archaeological Park Xanten Summer Festival ( ballet, music and theater ), the Duisburg accents (visual arts, readings, dance / ballet, theater, meetings ), Haldern Pop in Rees and Moers Festival, which would be unimaginable without is from the Lower Rhine jazz scene as taking place in the Festhalle Viersen Jazz Festival.
For cross-linking of all activities that are dedicated to the exploration of the region, supports and promotes the Lower Rhine Academy / Academie Nederrijn eV based in Xanten cross-border work of educational institutions, museums, archives and clubs on the Lower Rhine. She works closely with the Institute of the Lower Rhine cultural history and regional development ( InKUR ) at the University of Duisburg-Essen together, which has set itself the goal of interdisciplinary cooperation in the field of research on the cultural history and regional development of the Lower Rhine area and its neighboring areas from its beginnings to to promote the present.
As the " chief ideologist " of the Lower Rhine, the weekly paper characterized the time the comedian and writer Hanns Dieter Hüsch ironic. In contrast to the majority of predominantly Catholic region he came from the evangelical Moers, however, had long lived in Mainz. " The Lower Rhine itself knows nothing, but can explain everything! " Was his description of the people who come from "his" region. " The essence of the Lower Rhine is the art of pure conjecture, its linguistic form an unrestrained associating ranting ," wrote the Mönchengladbach Christof Siemes in time. " The sentence structure is like the area: far and unarticulated. " The " art of pure conjecture " is reflected in the formulation gladly and frequently used by low Rheinern " As I go ma ' from from " magnificently resist. The Rheinische Post gave the people of this region with the words " The Lower Rhine is the lowered version of Rhinelander ."
Ending the comedian Hüsch used mainly a variant designated by linguists as Rhenish Regiolekt language, the dialect spoken in the Lower Rhine (Niederrhein - Platt) than to the low Franconian duly considered.
The dialect is bounded on the south by the Benrather line marking the spread of the High German consonant shift. North of this line say the dialect remained faithful locals make instead of make and it is spoken Niederrheinisch, which is classed as Low Franconian dialects. South of the Benrather line follows the Ripuarian linguistic area; there it is, instead of making maache. This reflects a slightly greater proximity to southern dialects and also for high- standard German. Since the line does not follow the present-day political boundaries and both Dusseldorf and Monchengladbach cuts, it is a cultural dividing line, even if it has only minor relevance. She is not only a " language border ", despite dialect continuum, but also a " cultural boundary " in relation to construction techniques and Erbverhalten. North of the line Benrather the houses were disrupted by the gable side, south of the eaves. South of the line Benrather there was real division, north inherited only the eldest son.
In the Lower Rhine in turn, is divided by the Uerdinger line into two linguistic regions. North of this line voice saying ek or ik instead of I, to the south instead of it esch or severally. The Uerdinger line runs from Leuven, Belgium on the Dutch Roermond and Viersen, crosses between Uerdingen and Duisburg- Mündelheim the Rhine, passing north of Mintard through the region and meets again on above Benrather line at Wuppertal. The Low Franconian dialect between the two lines is called Limburg, a somewhat misleading name. No agreement exists as to whether he is counting down already for the German-speaking countries or even to central Germany, which is complicated by the dialect continuum. The north of this well maintained Low Franconian dialect is the Kleverländische. It forms with the Limburg dialect and another Lower Rhine dialect, the Ostbergischen, Mölmsch, a dialect continuum. The Low Franconian dialects differ very clearly from the High German Regiolekt, here called Niederrheinisches German, which today represents the most common slang in the Lower Rhine. At the Issel and in the High Mark the plural unit line that separates there the Lower Saxony Westphalia from Kleverländischen runs.
In the Emscher zone to which one expects the north of Duisburg, Oberhausen and Essen's north, is spoken in the German Ruhr rule rather take Niederrheinisches German.
The transboundary nature park Maas -Schwalm -Nette is 870 square kilometers in size and offers numerous bike tours; in its vicinity are the Dutch National Park De Maasduinen, Meinweg, De Groote Peel and Hoge Veluwe. ( See also National Parks in the Netherlands. )
2010, there were in Krefeld and the districts of Kleve, Viersen and Wesel, taken together, over 2 million tourist nights, including 17.5 % from abroad.
2 Land is a tourism project in the two regions Europe Euregio Rhein- Maas -Nord, Euregio Rhine- Waal. On the German side are the districts Viersen, Neuss, Wesel and Kleve and the cities of Krefeld, Mönchengladbach and Duisburg - 2 country.