Lucien Bonaparte ( born Luciano Buonaparte, since 1814 Principe de Canino e Musignano; born March 21, 1775 in Ajaccio, Corsica, † June 29, 1840 in Viterbo, Italy ), was the third born of the brothers Bonaparte.
After completing his education in France, Lucien, 1789, one of the most radical spokesman of the Jacobin Clubs in Ajaccio. When the Welfare Committee initiated the de-Christianization, he took his first name and called himself temporarily Brutus Buonaparte.
As followers of Robespierre he was taken on July 27, 1794 ( 9 Thermidor ) in Aix en Provence until his overthrow in custody. Thanks to the intervention of his elder brother Napoléon he could narrow escape the guillotine.
As president of the Council of Five Hundred at St. Cloud, he was this Parliament before the coup d'état of the 18th Brumaire. In this position, he managed to elect his brother Napoleon, 10th November 1799 to the First Consul.
In his first marriage Lucien was married from 1794 to the wealthy heiress Christine Boyer ( 1773-1800 ). During the Consulate he was Interior Minister in 1799 and later in 1800 ambassador to Spain. Together with Manuel de Godoy (1767-1851), the First Minister of Spain, he attacked the so-called Orange War (Spanish: Guerra de la Naranjas ) the defenseless to Portugal. Instead of occupying the country, as it was his brother, extorted and Lucien de Godoy, a high compensation for itself and granted the mild peace of Badajoz. Napoleon was furious and called his brother a scoundrel and a thief.
On Lucy's suggestion was the Académie française, whose member he was from 1803 to 1816, rebuilt in 1803. In the same year he married against the wishes of Napoleon Alexandrine de Bleschamp, known under the name of Madame Jouberton widow Hippolyte Joubertons. From this union came ten children.
After a falling out with his brother because he was divorced from his first wife and not befitting second wife, married Lucien drew back in 1804 on his lands in Canino, Italy. When he wanted to emigrate to America in 1810, he fell into British captivity, which lasted until 1814. Meanwhile, he resided in the estate Thor Grove in Worcestershire. Released by the English, he was knighted by Pope Pius VII in 1814 Principe de Canino e Musignano and thus sovereign ruler of päpstlichern graces upon his lands.
Despite his differences with the Emperor, he supported Napoleon in 1815 on the return of the Hundred Days. After the Battle of Waterloo and Napoleon's final abdication Lucien was set in Turin by the King of Sardinia and released after the intervention of Pius VII. As part of the restoration of the Bourbons he was exiled from France in 1816 and lost his seat in the Académie française. He spent the rest of his life in Italy.
As the author wrote Lucien works in prose and in rhyme; so the novel La Tribu indienne (Eng. The Indian tribe ) and the poem about Charlemagne Charlemagne.
His eldest son Charles Lucien was a world-renowned ornithologist. Lucien's son Pierre was the enfant terrible of the family. His great-granddaughter of Marie Bonaparte was a pioneer of psychoanalysis Sigmund Freud and companion.