Luigi Pirandello ( born June 28, 1867 in Girgenti, today's Agrigento, Sicily, † December 10, 1936 in Rome ) was an Italian writer. He is counted among the most important playwrights of the 20th century and was awarded the 1934 Nobel Prize for Literature.
- 3.1 dramas
- 3.2 Narrative Prose
Pirandello was on a small estate called Caos (German: chaos) was born in a suburb of Agrigento, the son of a sulfur mine operator. He grew up in Agrigento and Palermo and published already during school first literary attempts. After finishing school in 1887 he studied 1888/89 Romance Philology in Rome and the winter semester in 1889/90 until the summer semester 1892 in Bonn. In Bonn he wrote his doctorate on the subject of sounds and sound development of the dialect of Girgenti and was lecturer at the seminar Romanesque.
Pirandello in 1892 returned to Italy, settling in Rome as a freelance writer down and worked as a journalist. He married the end of January 1894 Antonietta Portulano; from the marriage were born three children. In 1897 he was representing university lecturer in Italian literature at the Pedagogical Academy in Rome, 1907, he was appointed to full professor at that institution. He remained in this position until 1922 academic His wife fell ill mentally and eventually had to be in 1919 housed in a closed institution. ; where she died in 1959.
In 1904 Luigi Pirandello scored its first major success with his serialized novel Mattia Pascal, who as " The Matthias Pascal -been " was released in Germany in 1905. Only in the 1910s, he turned to the drama, the area which should earn him worldwide literary fame. 1921/22, he had large, partly accompanied by scandals success with his plays Six Characters in Search of an Author and Henry IV in 1924 he opened his own theater, the Teatro d' Arte in Rome. Because of the lack of financial success, he then went on tours that took him through Europe and South America. In 1928, the troupe was disbanded again. In 1934 he received the Nobel Prize.
Relationship to fascism
In the relevant literature Pirandello's relationship to fascism is characterized by consistently ambivalent. Is no doubt that in 1924 a telegram to Mussolini sent, in which he asked stresses in a submissive tone for admission to the Fascist Party, which he remained a lifelong, for which he was sometimes criticized. On the other hand goes Pirandello's work, in which life is perceived as a " grotesque masque " what " logically also to apply to the policy [ must ] " absolutely not conform to the fascist doctrine. Is interesting also a quote in which he described himself as " apolitical ." Also why there are approaches that rely Pirandello's proximity to fascism with indirect motives in connection, such as with the deep distrust with which he met the previous governments. A more pragmatic motive could it have existed, that he was looking for support for his theater company and she could only find when he himself was in the ranks of the fascists.
He wrote mostly for the theater, as well as his short stories and novellas have obtained great reputation. Mattia Pascal, which still stands today on any curriculum, one of the most influential Italian novels and is considered the cornerstone of modern Italian literature. In his novels, he developed his thoughts often in the form of legends Sicilian or Italian events. Pirandello wrote over 350 short stories, mainly about realistic issues of Italian and Sicilian life. Less attention was paid to his poetry.
- Six Characters in Search of an Author ( Be personaggi in cerca d' autore, 1925). Drama. Premiere May 9, 1921 Rome (Teatro Valle)
- Henry IV ( Enrico IV, 1921). Comedy. Premiere February 24, 1922 Milan (Teatro Manzoni )
- Processing for musical theater: Enrico. Dramatic Comedy in 9 scenes (1989-91 ). Libretto by Claus H. Henneberg. Music: Manfred Trojahn. Premiere April 10, 1991 Schwetzingen ( Festival; Conductor: Dennis Russell Davies, Director and Set Design: Peter must Bach)
- The Giants of the Mountain (I Giganti della montagna; 1931-33 ). Drama. Premiere June 5, 1937 Florence ( Maggiolata )
- Mattia Pascal ( Il fu Mattia Pascal ). Novel. 1904
- The Notebooks of Serafino Gubbio cameraman ( Quaderni di Serafino Gubbio operatore ). Novel. 1916
- The Second. Novels. 1925
- Short stories for one year ( short story per un anno ). 15 volumes. 1922-1937
The Casa Pirandello, the birthplace of Pirandello in Cao, now houses a museum. You can see his study, various editions of his works, photographs and gardens, where his ashes were buried.
- Thomas and Michael Klinkert Rössner (ed.): Center and periphery: Pirandello between Sicily, Italy and Europe. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 978-3-503-07979-7
- Elio Providenti ( a cura di ), archeology pirandelliane, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania, 1990
- Henning Mehnert: Pirandello's " Henry IV " and the problem of multiple personality. In: Germanic- Romance monthly. 1978, p 325ff.
- Autore Luigi Pirandello, Sei personaggi in cerca d': Cornelia Klettke. In: Manfred Lentzen (ed.), Italian theater of the 20th century in individual interpretations. Erich Schmidt Verlag, Berlin 2008, pp. 87-113.
- Giovanni di Stefano: Pirandello in Germania - Germania in Pirandello, in: I Lettori d' italiano in Germania, ed. by Daniela Giovanardi and Harro Stammerjohann, Tübingen 1996, pp. 43-58.
- Sarah Zappulla Muscarà, Enzo Zappulla, Pirandello e il teatro siciliano, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 1986.
- Mirella Maugeri Salerno, Pirandello & Surroundings, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania, 1987
- Sarah Zappulla Muscarà ( a cura di ), Narratori siciliani del secondo Dopoguerra, Giuseppe Maimone Editore, Catania 1990
- Fausto De Michele, Michael Roessner ( a cura di ), " Pirandello e l' Europe " (Centro Nazionale Studi PIrandelliani ) Metaurus, Pesaro, 2007.
- Fausto De Michele ( ed.): Non si sa come You do not like Stefan Zweig traduce Luigi Pirandello. Arezzo: Bibliotheca Aretina, in 2012.