Lusatian Highlands



The Lusatian Highlands ( Upper Sorbian: Łužiske hory, Czech: Lužická hornatina ) is the name of the hilly landscape of low mountains in Upper Lusatia in Saxony, which accompanies the upper reaches of the River Spree to the south of Bautzen. To the southwest it merges into the Saxon Switzerland, to the south it continues as a Bohemian Netherlands ( tschech. Šluknovsko ) to the Czech Republic continues where it merges to the southeast to the Lusatian Mountains, the German part represents the Zittau mountains. To the west, north and east close in West Lusatian hills and mountains, plains and Eastern Upper Lusatia Upper Lusatia Lösshügellandschaften to.

The Lusatian Highlands is part of the Sudetengebirgszugs, but develops its known height priorities Giant Mountains and Altvatergebirge only in clear ( south ) east removal.

The Lusatian Highlands is also the heartland of the Upper Lusatian dialect with the typical rolling Rrr, one says that people have "a Radl a dr Gurgl ", and here we also find many half-timbered houses - houses in the typical for the southern Upper Lusatia folk architecture in the Slavic and German half-timbered log house were combined.

Nature Spatial allocation

In the natural spatial order after Meynen that was done in Germany in the 1950s, presented the Lusatian mountains the main unit 441 within the main unit group 44 (BfN 1994: D14) Upper Lusatia dar. However, that somewhat heterogeneous main unit group immersed in the working group ecosystem and area character the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig no longer worked on natural spatial reorganization and was, depending on the landscape character, attributed to the Lösshügellandgürtel or the low mountain ranges. Here, the Lusatian Highlands is the only main unit of the former main unit group that was assigned to the " over- unity group " Saxon hill country and low mountain ranges, which continues from where southeast, but spatially separated on German soil Zittau Mountains and the west on the Saxon- Bohemian border adjoining landscapes Saxon Switzerland, Erzgebirge and the Vogtland.


The Lusatian Highlands is part of a very large intrusive complex in Central Europe, which was formed in the Neoproterozoic Cadomian orogeny during the. This is connected with the crystalline massifs of the neighboring Jizera and Giant Mountains. Although the rocks are mainly granodiorite geological strictly on the Saxon side, but the colloquial form Lausitz granite has become very common. The rock was and is degraded in several quarries and found as natural stone prevalence.

Significantly younger than the granodiorite and occurring in small scale granite are the remnants of past volcanic activity in the Tertiary. The long chain of volcanic mountains of the Bohemian Central Mountains on the Lusatian Mountains is also east of Lusatian hill country in the Eastern Upper Lusatia, Lusatian Neisse still to continue. Such basaltic mountains are located next to the still at the southeastern edge of the hill country itself Kottmar example, the dual clutch of Löbauer mountain sheep and mountain ( 449 m) at Lobau and the national crown (420 m) near Görlitz.

Mining attempts in the Lusatian mountains were not very successful due to lack of ores. For this, the area was once the center of the granite industry in Germany. Etc. In the form of facade elements, components for heavy masonry, fountain basin and pedestal monument as well as paving stones, paving slabs, fence columns there is the material throughout central Germany.

Topographical Description

The surface forms are clearly divided. The Lusatian Highlands is built up of four running east -west mountain ranges in between three broad Talwannen. The southeastern sections are located in the Czech lands and are also part of the Bohemian Netherlands.

The northernmost mountain range rises abruptly up from the Oberlausitzer climes. The most prominent mountains from east to west are the Hochstein northwest Kleindehsas (542 m), the Czorneboh ( 556 m), the thrombin mountain ( 432 m); west of the Spreetals eventually follow the Mönchswalder mountain ( 447 m), the Great Picho ( 499 m), the High Hahn south Tröbigaus (446 m) and south-east as western elevation of the mountain Belmsdorfer Bishop WERDAS (348 m). To the east of the High rooster branches of this chain of mountains, a spur first northwards and then westwards from, whose highest peaks are the Tröbigauer mountain ( 401 m) north Tröbigaus and the monastery mountain ( 394 m ) southeast of Demitz - Thumitz. This foothills counted Meynen already one of the external Westlausitzer foothills. According to the recent classification by the Saxon Ministry of the Westlausitzer foothills and west subsequent Lusatian plate for West Lusatian hill and mountain country summarizes the main thing is that these foothills is one, however, to the mountain country itself, which also corresponds to the landscape more. The valley between this north-western foothills and the northern mountain range is drained by the black water.

South of the actual mountain range located in the valley basin Cunewalde ( Cunewalder on the right Spree Creek water), Wilthen ( on the left Spree Creek butter water) and Neukirch / Lausitz and Putzkau (both at the flowing westward Wesenitz ).

The second mountain range extends from Bieleboh ( 499 m) above the Kälbersteine ​​(487 m ) west of the Spreetals then from the Weifaer height ( 505 m) to Valtenberg, which is the highest elevation of the Lusatian mountain land with 587 m.

South of these mountains are again in the valley: Ebersbach, Spremberg, OppachEquipment, pigeons home / Spree, Sohland an der Spree (all, except for the north deviating OppachEquipment, the source of the River Spree ), fortified village ( on the left Spree Creek cold water ) and Steinigtwolmsdorf ( immediately southeast of Wesenitz source run).

The third ridge is entirely left the river Spree and forms part of the border with the Czech Republic. It starts in the southeast of the mountain country on the Spree source Kottmar mountain ( 583 m) and continues through the first Poor Mountain (486 m ) just south Ebersbach. At the Saxon- Czech border eventually follow after two less significant elevations of just over 500 m, the summit Taubenberg ( 458 m), fire bush (443 m), Špičák ( 481 m, the peak entirely on the Czech side ), Liščí vrch ( 481 m), Hutberg (503 m), Buková hora ( 512 m, the peak entirely in the Czech Republic ) and Hoher Hahn at Langburkersdorf ( 528 m). The Hohwald, between the two main peaks Valtenberg and Hoher Hahn the last two mountain ranges merge into one another, is the largest contiguous forest area (30 km ²) in the Lusatian mountains. This fall, the most rainfall in winter and here we find the greatest snow depths in the area.

The valley basin south of the third ridge extends from Šluknov up to Neustadt in Saxony and is as the subsequent fourth and southernmost mountain chain predominantly Czech territory. Even the highest elevations are found with Hrazený ( German: Pirsken; 610 m) and Tanečnice ( German: Dance Plan; 597 m) in the Czech Republic; then it sets to the west continue to the Gerstenberg (532 m) to the Unger ( 537 m) in German territory.

The main river in the Lusatian mountains is the Spree, it rises at Kottmar and initially flows from east to west by Ebersbach, Spremberg, pigeons home until after Sohland. From here it turns north are in the further course of the gestalt character wavy successive ridges and valleys of a central axis, by breaking through the northern two mountain ranges. Here it forms between calves stones and Weifaer height at Schirgiswalde than rushing mountain river a narrow gap through the second most northern mountain range. In meanders it then traverses the northern valley basin at Kirschau, Rodewitz and Eulowitz. Here begins in a wider valley of breaking through the northernmost mountain range to finally reach Bautzen.

The valleys of the Lusatian mountain country and the southern Upper Lusatia are densely populated and cultivated. If you drive on B 98 and B 96 from Putzkau through the valleys to Zittau, the 60 km long route remains one practically always in a built-up area, as there lined up places like a string of pearls lying and merges into the other.