Madrasa (Arabic: مدرسة, place of study ' plural madaris; Turkish medrese ) since the 10th century, the name given to a school where they teach the Islamic sciences. The core disciplines of fiqh and usul al madrasa belong - fiqh and hadith science, teaching Arabic language and Quran Sciences, and in some madrassas other sciences such as logic and mathematics are taught. The madrasa is usually financed through a pious foundation. The founders is it to the process of defining the curriculum and the number of students, teachers and other staff. The size of such madāris varies considerably: while some consist of only a single classroom, while others include a whole complex of buildings with special facilities for teaching, the library, the placement of students and teachers as well as for worship.

In addition to this specific terminological meaning of the term madrasa is also commonly used in today's Arabic language as a term for any type of school.


The term madrasa is derived from the Arabic verbal noun tadrīs, originally designated only the lessons in fiqh. At first, mosques, especially Friday mosques, the most important places for the transfer of knowledge in this discipline had been. In the 10th century for the first time with the establishment of the first specialized madāris learning places for Islamic law were created in Khorasan. The introduction of Madrasa in Iraq occurred in the second half of the 11th century, when two officers of the Seljuk Empire, the vizier Nizam al -Mulk ( 1018-1092 ) and Minister of Finance ( mustaufī ) Sharaf al -Mulk two madrasas in Baghdad founded. Nizam al -Mulk was not satisfied with the establishment of his Madrassa in Baghdad, but founded such schools nor in several other cities such as Nishapur, Mosul and Balch. These designated as the state-funded schools Nizamiyya madrasa beings reached its first climax. In the early 12th century founded Sunnis, who had come to influential positions in the Fatimid empire, the first madrasas in Egypt. To the main promoters of the madrasa in the second half of the century was Saladin. He founded madrasas not only in Cairo, but also in the newly conquered territories it Syria, Palestine and Hijaz.

The early madrassas were all either aligned to the Hanafi madhhab or schafiitischen. In traditionalist circles, especially in the Hanbali, there was still a long time religious reservations about the new institution. In 1234, the Abbasid caliph al - Mustansir founded with his al - Madrasa al - Mustansiriyya for the first time a Madrasa which involved all the four Sunni madhhabs. Later such four- madhhab - madrasas were also in other places, for example in Cairo and Mecca, built.

In the 13th century, the Madrassa was introduced by the Hafsids ( 1229-1574 ) and Marinids also in the Maghreb. The first Madrasa in the area of ​​present-day Tunisia was the Madrasat al - Ma ʿ founded in 1258 rad in Tunis. On the territory of Morocco Abu Yusuf Yaqub was the 1285 built Madrasat as- Saffārīn the first educational institution of its kind

In India, the first madrassas were also founded in the 13th century. Middle of the 18th century here, standardized with the Dars -i Nizami, a teaching curriculum that the scholars of Farangi Mahall had developed the madrasa education. They included not only traditional sciences ( manqūlāt ) and rational sciences (ma ʿ qūlāt ). The former included Arabic grammar and syntax ( sarf wa - nahw ), rhetoric ( Balagha ), legal theory ( usul al - fiqh), hadith science and Koranic exegesis, to the latter logic ( Mantiq ) wisdom teachings ( Hikma ), theology ( kalam ) and Mathematics ( Riyādīyāt ). During the British colonial era, there were discussions about how far the modern Western sciences should be integrated into the madrasa education among Muslim scholars. While in this respect was such openness in Farangi Mahall itself, the scholars of the 1866 newly founded Dar ul - Ulum Deoband were considerably more restrained. In particular, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, a founder of the school, the modern Western sciences refused. However, there were no reservations regarding the use of modern printing technology for the dissemination of own books.

Current situation

In the sense of classical education policy act, with certain limitations, four institutions, students are taught from the entire Islamic world in the classical religious studies in their classrooms: Al -Azhar University in Cairo, the Dar ul - Ulum Deoband in northern India Deoband, al - Zaytuna in Tunis and al - Qarawiyyin in Fes.

In the Maghreb countries, the Madrasa is one of the three levels of training of traditional Islamic education, which collectively Mahadra (Arabic: maḥḍara, Pl: maḥāḍir = session ',' presence ' - the teacher, host, etc.) are referred to. This includes the introductory madrasa, which is called Maktab or Kuttab. They first restricted exclusively on memorization ( hifz ) of the Qur'anic text and the spelling thereof. To Mahadra also includes the in-depth training at the Madrasa (also Mahadra in the narrow sense ) and the religious specialization, which occurs in the Zawiya.

The largest madrasa, which shall inform the Ibadite of Islam, is the Institute of Islamic Sciences, which is affiliated to the Sultan Qaboos Grand Mosque in Muscat ( Oman). In Oman, this branch of Islam is the dominant one.

Those who undergo a madrasa education, often receive certain honorary titles such as Mullah ( in Iran) or Mawlawi ( in South Asia ). Graduates of a Shia Madrasa be dubbed Huddschat al - Islām.