Magha Puja ( Thai วัน มาฆบูชา, RTGS: Makha Bucha; Khmer មាឃបូជា, Meak Bochea; Lao ມະ ຄະ ບູ ຊາ, Makha Busa ) is a holiday of the Theravada Buddhists of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia. The day commemorates the spontaneous gathering of 1,250 students of the Buddha, who had assembled to hear the Buddha preach. This day always falls on the full moon day of the third lunar month in the traditional Thai calendar ( late February or early March ), he finds, in each year on a different date instead.
The name is composed of Magha ( Pali: Name of the third lunar month ) and Puja ( Pali: worship ), Magha Puja is thus a day worship of the Buddha and his teachings on the full moon day of the third month.
The origin of the festival goes back to the legend of a spontaneous gathering of 1,250 monks. They had all decided independently of each other to visit the Buddha in Bamboo Grove ( Weluwan Forest ) near Rājagṛha lived at that time ( in the historical Kingdom of Magadha ). Of the 1,250 monks were 1,000 Enlightened ( Arhat ), which had previously been ordained by the Buddha himself. The other 250 were disciples of the elders Moggallana and Sariputta. Other sources speak of 1,250 enlightened monks.
According to legend, the Buddha used also in the last year of his life to the full moon day of Magha - to announce that he would die within three months.
It is not clear when the Magha Puja holiday was celebrated for the first time. In a list of the religious ceremonies within a year, which was published by the Siamese King Chulalongkorn ( Rama V ), it is mentioned that his father King Mongkut (Rama IV ) in the wake of the founding of the Order Thammayut Nikaya also a ceremony to Makha Bucha day - at Wat Phra Sri Rattana Satsadaram (now Wat Phra Kaeo ) celebrated. The holiday was probably celebrated in Siam in 1851 for the first time, it was then in the kingdom recognized as a public religious holiday.
- Result of a combination of so many monks of the full moon day of Magha month is called the " Sangha Day". However, although because of the origin of the event this day is less interesting for lay Buddhist, he has an opportunity on the importance of belonging to a fourfold community ( male and female lay - Upasaka or Upasika - as well as nuns and monks ) thinking. For monks and nuns arise (often spontaneous ) meetings and lectures, which are held for several days on various aspects of teaching, group meditation or experiences.
- This Day in Thailand is also known as the four-fold coincidence ( Thai จาตุรงคสันนิบาต - Chaturongkhasannibat " pronunciation: [ t͡ɕa ː - tù - ron -k ʰ á -san- ní - bà ː t] ) is known as the Buddhist monastic community for the first time in history, to a attend an Assembly, which had four important characteristics: there were a total of 1,250 Buddhist monks to take their religious leaders, without convening a had occurred previously,
- Were all these monks on a higher level Enlightened ( " Phra Arahant ")
- All the monks had been ordained by the Buddha himself,
- It was the full moon day in Magha month.
The Buddha held on this day of the full moon of the third month before the assembled monks his " Ovada - Patimokkha Gatha ", the Patimokkha admonitions.
Although some sections of the " Patimokkha admonitions " mainly addressed to the ordained monks, but they also apply to the Buddhist laity. Laymen can take these notes as the basis to live in accordance with the instructions of the Buddha ( the Dhamma ). Ajaan Lee Dhammadharo summarized these guidelines under six main headings:
- Anūpavādo - No defamatory - only talk good about third parties.
- Anūpaghāto - Not hurtful - you should not allow yourself to hate others, you should exercise in metta instead. A person who wants to avoid bad deeds will take care not to be violent towards others or exploit others.
- Pāṭimokkhe ca saṃvaro - restriction in accordance with the Pathimokkha - One should behave that continually lives near the entrance to Nirvana, by observing the Five Precepts or even the Eight Precepts ( Atthangasila ).
- Mattaññutaa ca bhattasmiṃ - moderation in eating - Ajaan Lee provides, inter alia as the source of terrorism, greed and selfishness. As a way to let all you get to share with others ( Dana ).
- Pantañca sayan'āsanaṃ. - Life in the seclusion - One should settle down in a quiet place, to be calm in body and mind. Helpful is to practice meditation.
- Adhicitte ca āyogo: - commitment to high spiritual training - action should not be complacent, patience and restraint is to practice the same high spiritual training.
- Etam buddhāna - sāsananti. - This is the teaching of the Buddhas - The extinction of suffering and desire is the highest knowledge.
The Makha - Bucha celebrations ( in Thai: จัด งาน วัน มาฆบูชา - " Chat Ngan Wan Makha Bucha " ) commit the faithful Buddhist religious activities such as gifts donations to the monks ( " tak baat " - ตักบาตร ) and / or listening to a monk's sermon ( ฟัง เทศน์ - " catch thet "). After dark, the monks lead the faithful to a candlelight procession ( เวียนเทียน - " wian thian " ), the " Chedi ", the " ubosot " building or even a Buddha statue is surrounded triplicate. Both the monks and the faithful carry the triple offerings: a lighted candle, three burning incense sticks and a wreath of flowers or a fresh flower. The multiple "Trinity " is one to reflect on the three jewels of Buddhism: Buddha, his teachings ( Dharma ) and the monastic community ( Sangha ).
In Bangkok, a religious ceremony is held in the evening under the direction of King Bhumibol Adulyadej at Wat Phra Kaeo. Then the King will lead the candle procession around the bot, regularly more than 100 people attend the.
On the grounds of the Dhammakaya Foundation, not far from Bangkok, gather for this occasion thousands annually monks, hundreds of thousands of Buddhist laymen together with guests from around the world to a common meditation.
Celebrations in other countries
- In Laos, the hard " Boun Makhabusa " is celebrated on the same date, which corresponds to the Thai Makha Bucha.
- In Cambodia is only regionally celebrated the feast " Meak Bochea " on the same date.
Makha Bucha - to - day on March 3, 2007, a reading of all 84,000 Chapter of the Thai Tripitaka was held on the Sanam Luang in Bangkok. Another occasion was the 80th birthday of King Bhumibol Adulyadej in this year. The reading from the 45 books of the over 100 -year-old Thai Tripitaka was long nonstop carried forward seven days and nights of Thai monks and lay people. One last existing version of the Tripitaka, which had been published by King Prajadhipok (Rama VII ) was issued at Wat Bangkradee ( Bang Bon district ) at the same time. The lecture was the first of its kind in the 800 -year history of Buddhism in Thailand. He should bring the whole country " enormous religious merit ."
Makha Bucha takes place:
- 2013 February 25
- 2014 February 14