Maglemosian culture

Microlithic blades and tips

The Maglemosian culture ( about 9000-6500 BC) is the oldest Mesolithic culture of the Northern European Lowlands. The term was coined in 1912 after the conducted since 1900 archaeological excavations in wetland Magle Mose (Danish: Large Moor ) at Mullerup on the west coast of Zealand (Denmark) introduced by the Danish archaeologist George L. Sarauw.

This culture was used in England, Northern Germany, Denmark, southern Sweden and the Baltic States ( Kunda culture). The Danish Gudenåen culture has proven to be a culture consisting of several layers of conglomerate and is no longer considered by the younger archaeological literature as a distinct culture.

Climate and vegetation

After the end of the last ice age ( Weichsel glacial period ) was started in 9650 BC quickly warmer. Due to the rapid melting of glaciers formed in the south area of today's Baltic Sea a meltwater, which was initially separated by a mainland bridge between Scandinavia and mainland Europe from the sea. In probably several changes between the rise of this freshwater lake and the rise of the oceans this ice lake ran out at first, but was soon followed by influx of sea water to a brackish water, the Yoldia sea. The liberated from the ice load Scandinavia rose so far that the Yoldia Sea was separated again and aussüßte the Ancylus Lake. The whole thing repeated itself: First, short overflows into the Kattegat, then 7000-5600 BC ever stronger inflow of sea water and the formation of Littorinameeres. The rising sea flooded the coastal lowlands and floodplains of glacial valleys and the resting and living space of the Maglemosian people. In the North Sea sank about the end of this culture, the Dogger Bank in the floods.

The open tundra landscape of Preboreal made ​​in Boreal forests and dense vegetation space. First, birch and pine and then Hazel were at home, followed by mixed deciduous forests with mainly elm and lime, mixed oak forests grew. The Pleistocene fauna migrated north and east from ( reindeer or wild horse). Native became or remained wolf, bear, wild boar and deer.

Dwelling places and tombs

Staple food of the people were still hunting and increased fishing ( particularly the pike was popular ) and the gathering of berries, nuts and wild fruits. The people were at least seasonally settled and built huts as discovered at Howick in Northumberland. A phenomenon of around 6500 BC, beginning Kongemose culture and the subsequent Ertebølle culture are the Køkkenmøddinger, middens with diverse living space remains along the former Baltic coast.

Individual and collective burials were common; the bodies were buried in a crouched position ( as a seated stool ) and often sprinkled with red chalk. Even the oldest bog body of Denmark ( "Woman of Koelbjerg " ) dated to the time of Maglemosian culture. Her death, however, rated as an accident.

Material Culture

Typically, one finds microlithic flint blades and spear points made ​​of bone. Core, drum and disc axes, cross -edged arrowheads and scraper came into use. Inventions of Maglemosian culture were the fish hook and the drill.

The oldest evidence of watercraft applies a wooden paddle and a boardwalk from the prehistoric locality Star Carr in Scarborough in Yorkshire. Bernstein was processed into animal figures or jewelry, even people teeth were worn as jewelry.