The management process includes the control of nuclear processes in organizations, with a focus on the structuring of organizational roles and their responsibilities. It represents a view of the business processes of a company, the further the core processes and supporting processes are.
A core process is, for example, a production process or a marketing process. Supporting processes are, for example, accounting or human resources. Management processes such as the development of visions and strategy, determining the objectives, personnel management, quality management, project management, risk management, financial management.
A management process is a flow, defining and influencing business processes in which managers in companies and organizations. He is also referred to as factual accession process and can be. Both the corporate governance and refer to portions such as project management or risk management
About the elements of the management process, there is no uniform view in the literature.
The process of management consists of the following phases:
- Objective - description of concrete and measurable objectives both strategic and operational nature (short - medium - long term) to meet the operational purpose.
- Planning - as a mental anticipation of future events. It should highlight the ways in which the objectives are achieved. For this purpose, inter alia, include organizing the staff and use of resources as well as to the time required.
- ( Decision) - selection of (if any) of action with regard to the objective.
- Realization - as implementation of the Scheduled into operational reality. This organization, personnel and labor are necessary, for example.
- Control - is the show based on the target -actual comparison whether it is able to implement the plans into reality.
In addition, must be present at every stage -specific information. Furthermore, a comprehensive communication between the parties of all phases necessary. Since the decision is an act of will of all these phases can be assigned, it is not a separate phase of this process.
According to ISO / IEC 15504 (SPICE ) belong to this process category management processes, processes in project management, quality management and risk management.
The basic practices of the management process include:
Principles, tasks and tools
The author Fredmund Malik distinguishes between principles, tasks, and tools of management:
- In principle, should a management process result -oriented, holistic and constructive. The manager focusing on the essentials. The focus on their own strengths as well as the creation of trust among the employees in addition to creating a more positive and honest picture of the process.
- The objects will be acquired in parallel with the phase of the management process and are based on it. They can be referred to as management functions, such as planning, organizing, coordinating, discussion, reports, warding and control.
- As tools, the manager can be called session, report, job design (English job design) and assignment control, Personal work methodology, budget & budgeting, cost accounting, performance evaluation and systematic sorting.
Management -by- concepts
All management concepts / techniques are based on the guiding technology and relate to the " cooperative management ". Here the manager is the coordinator normally and returns information in the employee group. The group is actively involved in the decision-making process! There are the following major management -by- concepts:
- Management by delegation, in which tasks are assigned by the supervisor to the employee, complete the answer with regard to these decisions and settlement, such as settlement of a complete customer order by an employee group. A German version is the Harzburg model.
- Management by Objectives, in which supervisor and employee jointly agreed objectives. The employee shall itself determine the path of target achievement. Finally, there is a target-actual comparison, for example, an agreed realistic and accurate target agreement
- Management by exception, decide and act autonomously if the employee in normal situations and routine cases. Managers engage only in exceptional cases and situations. For example, following the normal case is defined: Grant of discount up to a maximum height of. 20 % by the employee.
- Management by Crisis, in which the guide is done by management through deliberate creating or provocation of crises within the company to achieve better results than before.
- Management by Results, in which the control is exercised by monitoring its success by the results obtained are subjected to by the management of an ongoing and precise control.
- Management by motivation, in which the guide is done through targeted employee motivation by the subordinates are given incentives they should encourage to further improve performance.
- Management by Projects as a form of teamwork, where the address particular projects is important, for example, the establishment of a new plant or the introduction of an effective IT system.
Other management concepts
- The lean management as effective and " lean management ", on the one hand tries to reduce the hierarchical levels of the company to cut costs and on the other hand the business processes tries benefit -making and more cost effective.
- The business process reengineering concept as an expression of the fundamental re-thinking of all operational processes that must be spelled out in terms of their onset, their elements and of their end. In addition, knowledge of the customer relationship management (CRM), which are constantly optimizing incorporated in the production and business process chains of the company.
- The Integrated Management as quality management, as environmental management, as a value -based management, as knowledge management and the system of work safety.
- The St. Gallen Management Model as an integrated model for the management of enterprises, which encompasses all design, steering and development processes that determine the company's activities. It is a networked information system decision.
Management errors are caused in the company often through the use of inappropriate methods, procedures and actions ( rituals ) of managers, the reasons for the application of useless or inadequate procedures are varied, for example:
- Lack of knowledge of the upper management of business processes, which can lead to wrong decisions with negative consequences.
- Helplessness of managers, that is, the agent has no alternatives, but it does happen.
- Decision Psychological traps, lack of awareness of or sensitivity to the vulnerability of decisions to bias, omissions, simplifications, and so on.
- Rigidity in thought and action as a threat to hold on to once decisions taken, even if the facts has clearly and visibly changed.
The use of inappropriate management practices can waste resources (labor, capital, etc. ) and time, and also cause further damage (eg damage to image, insolvency).