Maracaibo on the map of Venezuela
Maracaibo ( German: Neu- Nuremberg, Germany) is a port town on the Lago de Maracaibo in Zulia state ( at the same time the provincial capital ) in the northwest of the South American country of Venezuela. The city forms with more than two million inhabitants, is the second largest metropolitan area in the country ( Caracas ) and one of the largest cities in the Caribbean.
The city is located on the western shore of an 8 km wide strait, Canal de San Carlos, which connects Lake Maracaibo in the south to the northern Gulf of Venezuela and thus with the Caribbean. This strait is crossed by the 9 km long General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge -. On the other side, southeast of Maracaibo, is located 20 km away the city Cabimas. North of the city, the Guajira peninsula, which belongs for the most part to the neighboring country Colombia extends. The border of Colombia is located in the west and north, just 100 miles from Maracaibo. 250 km east lies the city of Coro.
The city's climate is semiarid, and the maximum daily temperatures are fairly constant throughout the year saw 29-32 ° C. Maracaibo is the hottest city in Venezuela and is haunted September-November of rainfall.
2006, a subway line was ( the Metro del Sol Amado ) opened with 6 stations. Further expansion is planned. Cope with most of the public transport buses: next buses ( bus) there are medium-sized buses ( Buseta ) and minibuses, the Microbus or Colectivo be called.
The Maracaibo International Airport (Aeropuerto Internacional La Chinita ) (MAR ) is located about 15 km away from the city limits in a south-westerly direction. It provides connections to Bogotá, Miami, Panama City, as well as to Caracas and other Venezuelan cities.
The airline Venezolana founded in 2001, is headquartered in Maracaibo.
Much of Venezuela's oil trade is shipped through the port Maracaibo.
The Maracuchos are very proud of their city and their culture. Indian influences are palpable everywhere. Most immigrants came from Spain, especially Andalusia, but in addition also from Italy and Germany. The Gaita Zuliana, an original Christmas music played, combined with other styles of music.
In the city of Baseball ( club: Águilas del Zulia ) is football ( Unión Atlético Maracaibo and Zulia FC ) and basketball ( gaiteros del Zulia ) popular.
The Estadio José Encarnación Romero is a Mulifunktionsstadion for 42,000 spectators, which is primarily used for football matches.
The first settlements in the area were built by Arawak and Carib.
Maracaibo was, as a new Nuremberg founded on September 8, 1529 by the then Governor of Little Venice, Ambrose Alfinger (or Ehinger ). Corresponding documents of 1555, probably by the priest Juan de Robledo were only rediscovered in 1938. The settlement was not recognized as a city, as it had no town hall and was political- legal dependent of Coro. The name " Villa de Maracaibo ", also used goes back to an eponymous Coquibacoa - chief. The settlement was probably to the north of present-day Maracaibo, on the Guajira Peninsula, and was abandoned in 1535 due to the increasing hostility of the Indian population.
On August 4, 1569 Maracaibo was founded as Ciudad Rodrigo de Maracaibo for the second time, this time from Trujillo - Alonso Pacheco Governor with the approval of the General Captain of Venezuela, Don Pedro Ponce de León. A town hall was built and thus achieved the status of a city, but in 1573 left the population - just 30 families - the place again.
A year later, in 1574, Pedro Maldonado founded the city with 35 people for the third time. Your name Nueva Zamora de la Laguna de Maracaibo refers to Zamora in Spain, the birthplace of Governor Diego de Mazariego, the Maldonado was under. In 1667 the town was invaded, conquered and plundered by the pirate François l' Olonnais. The city residents and residents were weeks raped, tortured and harassed by the men. In March 1669 the pirate Henry Morgan attacked the city.
1810, the province of Maracaibo did not rule on the First Republic of Venezuela, but behaved loyal to Spain. In 1821 fighting broke out between the Royalists under Francisco Tomás Morales and the supporters of independence under Rafael Urdaneta, who won in 1823.
For a long time the city was connected by ferry with the rest of Venezuela, Colombia was easier to achieve. This isolation fostered aspirations for an independent State of Venezuela, called La República Independiente del Zulia, to which it never came.
In 1962, the General Rafael Urdaneta Bridge over - the Lake Maracaibo was opened; so that Maracaibo was also accessible by road from the eastern Venezuela.
Today the city from the northern and the southern Maracaibo, founded in 1995, San Francisco is.
The Church of " La Chinita " is a famous place of pilgrimage, there is a woman to be the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared out of place on her washboard. The board still decorated the altar and is visited daily by hundreds of faithful.
Founded in 1891 Zulia University ( " La Universidad del Zulia " LUZ) is the largest of the five state and private universities (eg URBE and URU).
Sons and daughters of the town
- Luis Aparicio, Baseball Player
- Ricardo Aguirre, composer and singer
- Eduard Bermudez, Boxer
- Rafael Maria Baralt, diplomat and writer, born on July 3, 1810 and died on January 4, 1860
- Kerez, Swiss Architect
- Daniela Larreal, cyclist
- Ninibeth Leal, Miss World 1991
- Roberto Luckert Leon, Archbishop
- Massimo Margiotta, Venezuelan- Italian footballer
- Armando Molero, Songwriter.
- Carlos Caridad - Montero, film producer
- Humberto Fernández Morán, researchers who developed the diamond scalpel and venezuela safe research institute " IVIC " founded ( " Instituto de Investigaciones Cientificas Venezolano " )
- Rafael Romero, Athlete
- Rafael Urdaneta, hero of the Revolutionary War.
- Vivian Urdaneta, Miss International 2000.
- Jorge Valdivia, Chilean football player
The impostor and writer Harry Domela probably died around 1977 in Maracaibo.
Maracaibo served as the backdrop for the film " Two missionaries ," with the cast Bud Spencer and Terence Hill.
Furthermore, the city is also frequently mentioned in pirate movies, where it serves either as the seat of the Spanish governors or as a pirate refuge.
- South Africa Durban, South Africa
- United States Honolulu, United States
- United States New Orleans, United States
- Romania Ploiesti, Romania
- United States San Juan, Puerto Rico
- Germany Bremen, Germany