Marking (association football)#Man-to-man marking
In football we speak of man coverage, when the game system is based on letting play " man to man ". The direct assignment of players to the opponent is in the historical game systems such as the 3- 5-2 system, the tactical target for the defender. The defenders are in man coverage teams divided into man-marker, which guard the opposing strikers, and the "free" man in defense, the libero.
The Marking is based on a rather static view on soccer systems. So the defense players are consistently busy with defense work. While German teams by the end of the 1990s (and even beyond) acted with the man coverage, other teams had already begun in the late 1980s, switching to the back four or the three-man in defense. The man-marking is an expression of a "European" orientation in football, which is based on safety concerns and consequent destruction of the opponent's body. The Catenaccio than most defensive form of man coverage is considered the highlight of the safe game. While football romantics denote the Marking as boring and results-oriented, talk some football statistics for the Marking as a successful system. Thus Germany was with man coverage so far three times world champion (1954, 1974 and 1990). Now, however, a game system is practiced with back four in the German national team.
One of the last big successes of a team with this game system was the victory of the Greeks at the European Football Championship 2004. 's Coach of the Greeks, Otto Rehhagel had let his team play with man coverage consistently.
More modern game systems are based on the space coverage.
The advantages of Marking several reasons were considered:
- The clear division of responsibilities
- You put the " matching" opponent - physically as well as the playability ago - for the opposing dribbler head specialist, Playmaker, Sprinter
- Sensible opponent resign rather in close Marking
In contrast, there were also well-known disadvantages of Marking:
- Running speed and running paths are imposed by the opponent
- Through tactical measures the opponent can attract players to unfavorable positions or even to force to free -scoring rooms
- In Überspieltsein a defender may cause disorder in the cover; especially when the " sweeper " can not be immediately place
Partly also Marking is operated in hockey, especially if the same number of players on the ice.
In Handball is the measure of man coverage - also called short covering - usually then applied in defense, when a particularly strong player game is to be prevented from Torerfolgen at the opposing team. Due to the short covering that player is playable difficult for his teammates and is " taken out of the game" so.
In basketball, the " man - man defense " (MMV ) also practiced. Does the attacker of the ball, the direct way to the basket by the position of the man Deckers must be blocked. Variable are the distances to the enemy: the case of particularly good throwers the defender should defend closer to the body, with very fast players a little more space should be left.