Maximilian II of Bavaria

Maximilian II Joseph King of Bavaria ( born November 28, 1811 in Munich, † March 10, 1864 ibid ) from the house of Wittelsbach. Maximilian II was from 1848 to 1864 King of Bavaria. He was married to Marie Friederike of Prussia, from this marriage came later the Bavarian kings Ludwig II and Otto I forth. His younger brother was the Prince Regent Luitpold.


He was the eldest son of King Ludwig I and his wife Therese of Saxe- Hildburghausen. 1829 to 1830 he studied at the University of Göttingen from 1830 to 1831 at the Friedrich -Wilhelms -Universität zu Berlin, where he particularly attended lectures in history and constitutional law. Maximilian was a student of the scholar Friedrich Dahlmann and Arnold Heeren in Göttingen, Friedrich von Raumer and Leopold von Ranke in Berlin and Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling in Munich. His understanding of history was strongly influenced by them. In 1830 he was made an honorary member of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.

With a hike in April 1829, he saw the dilapidated ruin of Hohenschwangau Castle. He bought it in October 1832 and left them by Domenico Quaglio rebuild as a summer residence. The castle became the model for the fairy tale castles of his son Crown Prince Ludwig II during his time in Europe he undertook long journeys that have led him to Greece, Italy and England.


On 20 March 1848 he took over after the abdication of his father's affairs. After taking the oath, he declared in his speech from the throne: "I am proud to call myself a constitutional king. " Shortly after ascending the throne, he granted a constitutional reform that had granted his father. It was adopted a new electoral law, the members of the second chamber were elected not by occupation, and the state legislature was given the right to initiate legislation.

Foreign Policy

In foreign policy, he sought to preserve the independence of Bavaria in the German Confederation. The authorization granted by the Frankfurt National Assembly on March 28, 1849 Constitution he refused. This triggered the Palatinate uprising. The king called Prussian military to help, and on June 10, 1849 marched also a Bavarian Army Corps, in the Palatinate, making the uprising was crushed.

Along with his ministers of the Ludwig Maximilian Pfordten operation in the following years the concept of the Triassic policy. This envisaged to develop the German states under the leadership of Bavaria to the third force besides the two great powers Prussia and Austria.

Domestic Policy

Domestically, he was a patron of science and art. The appeal of famous professors - the so-called "Northern Lights " - at the Ludwig- Maximilians- University of Munich Munich cemented reputation as a university town, but also caused fears among the more conservative population, since most of those called were Protestants and more liberal outlook. From September 25 to October 13, 1854 remained Leopold von Ranke at the invitation of the king in his summer residence at Berchtesgaden. Since 1854, Maximilian II led weekly with the intellectual elite of Munich (eg Justus von Liebig ) symposia. He is also the founder of the Maximilianeum, a Bavarian Gifted Foundation, in whose building today is the residence of Bavarian Landtag. On August 20, 1858, the personally particularly supported by him Historical Commission was constituted at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences.

Under his rule, the state legislature gave liberal reforms in the areas of state election law, press censorship, assembly and association law and judicial system, along with its emancipation. However, the implementation of these reforms took a long time to complete. Maximilian project of a law for Jewish emancipation was strongly opposed in the people.

Style of government

However, people linked and loving home, he also sought art and customs of the people to promote to set a Bavarian national feeling against the German unification efforts. He supported Bavarian costumes, customs, folk music and customs. In the summers of 1849 and 1855 he traveled in his kingdom. From June 24 to July 27, 1858 he undertook a journey on foot through his country, which began in Lindau. However, because of frequent rain he had to repeatedly use the carried body.

For his government's policy repeatedly requesting advice of his ministers and the surrounding scholar was characteristic, whereby decisions were often delayed for long. In addition, Maxilmilian often was traveling in Italy and Greece, where the work stayed behind for a long time. The relationship with his father, who has persisted in its construction was curious.


Maximilian died after only lasted three days severe illness. The doctors declared it as a rapidly spreading Rotlauferkrankung on the chest. He was buried in the Theatinerkirche in a side chapel. His heart was buried separately and is located in the chapel Altöttings.


Duke Christian III. of Palatinate -Zweibrücken (1674-1735) ∞ 1719 Caroline of Nassau -Saarbrücken (1704-1774)

Joseph Karl von Pfalz- Sulzbach (1694-1729) ∞ 1717 Elisabeth Auguste Sofie von der Pfalz (1693-1728)

Landgraf Louis VIII of Hesse- Darmstadt (1691-1768) ∞ 1717 Charlotte of Hanau- Lichtenberg (1700-1726)

Count Christian Carl Reinhard of Leiningen- Dabo (1695-1766) ∞ 1726 Katharina Polyxena of Solms- Roedelheim (1702-1765)

Duke Ernst Friedrich II of Saxe -Hildburghausen (1707-1745) ∞ 1726 Caroline of Erbach (1700-1758)

Duke Ernst August I of Saxony -Weimar -Eisenach (1688-1748) ∞ 1734 Sophie Charlotte of Brandenburg -Bayreuth (1713-1747)

Karl Mecklenburg (1708-1752) ∞ 1735 Elizabeth Albertine of Saxe- Hildburghausen (1713-1761)

Georg Wilhelm of Hesse- Darmstadt (1722-1782) ∞ 1748 Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen - Falkenburg - Dabo (1729-1818)

Duke Friedrich Michael von Pfalz- Birkenfeld (1724-1767) ∞ 1746 Maria Franziska Dorothea von Pfalz- Sulzbach (1724-1794)

Georg Wilhelm of Hesse- Darmstadt (1722-1782) ∞ 1748 Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen- Falkenburg - Dabo (1729-1818)

Duke Ernst Friedrich III. Carl von Sachsen- Hildburghausen (1727-1780) ∞ 1758 Ernestine of Saxe- Weimar Eisenach (1740-1786)

Grand Duke Karl of Mecklenburg -Strelitz (1741-1816) ∞ 1768 Friederike Caroline Luise of Hesse- Darmstadt (1752-1782)

King Maximilian I Joseph (1756-1825) ∞ 1785 Auguste Wilhelmine of Hesse -Darmstadt (1765-1796)

Duke Frederick of Saxony -Hildburghausen (1763-1834) ∞ 1785 Charlotte Georgine Luise of Mecklenburg -Strelitz (1769-1818)

King Ludwig I (1786-1868) ∞ 1810 Therese of Saxe- Hildburghausen (1792-1854)

King Maximilian II Joseph of Bavaria (1811-1864)


King Maximilian II Joseph became engaged on January 23, 1842 Princess Marie Friederike of Prussia ( 1825-1889 ), daughter of Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Karl of Prussia and his wife Maria Anna Amalie of Hesse- Homburg. From the closed in Munich on October 12, 1842 marriage had two sons:

  • Ludwig Otto Friedrich Wilhelm (1845-1886), 1867 engagement to Princess Sophie of Bavaria ( 1847-1897 ), as Ludwig II, King of Bavaria
  • Otto Wilhelm Luitpold (1848-1916), when Otto I King of Bavaria


In Munich include the boulevard remember Maximilian Street ( with the Maxmonument ) and the Maximilianeum to the king. The former Maximilian II barracks was also named after him.

The village Maximiliansau in the former Bavarian Rhenish Palatinate was named in 1858 by King Maximilian II Joseph; as well as the marketplace of Tirschenreuth and the steelworks Maxhiitte in Sulzbach -Rosenberg and sunk by this bill Maximilian in Hamm, Westphalia - Werries.

In 1853, Maximilian II founded the Maximilian Order for Science and Art, the - is awarded as the highest Bavarian award until today - after a break in 1933-1980.